The transformation from a linear to a circular economy and from a fossil oil-based to a biobased economy creates challenges that need to be solved. Challenges are associated with the introduction of biobased compounds, such as bioplastics, as new compounds, in existing material cycles and the difficulties to separate such compounds in a circular economy from conventionally used materials. The transformation, however, is necessary due to the expected limitation in fossil resources and associated climate and environmental issues. Sustainable chemistry aims on a simultaneous consideration of resource, production, product and recycling. The focus is not only on sustainable transformation of matter, but also on its origin and fate. Whenever biobased products are to be introduced in existing material cycles, following question might be considered beforehand: 1. Are renewable resources available to carry out production processes in order to meet the demand of certain products?, 2. Is the technology available to carry out recycling and production processes efficiently?, 3. How likely is the separate collection of products after use?, 4. Does the product eco-design allow a recycling of resources?, 5. Are additives as unwanted compounds circulated as well?, 6. Are recycled resources useable in repeatedly carried out production processes? and 7. Does society accept products based on recycled resources? Those questions can be addressed when totally new material cycles are generated. The challenge, however, is finding the beginning of an already existing cycle in a circular economy which allows an introduction of new materials and/or production as well as recycling processes.
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