an official journal of: published by:
an official journal of: published by:
Editor in Chief: RAFFAELLO COSSU


  • Vesna Žepič Bogataj - TECOS, Slovenian Tool and Die Development Centre, Slovenia
  • Peter Fajs - TECOS, Slovenian Tool and Die Development Centre, Slovenia
  • Carolina Peñalva - AITIIP Centro Tecnológico, Spain
  • Georgios Tsatsos - COSMETIC, Greece

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Copyright: © 2023 CISA Publisher


In this work new biocomposite materials from wasted citrus peels has been validated for a value-added packaging and novel cosmetic products. Specifically, extracted natural fibres and dehydrated pulp from citrus fruit were combined with polylactic acid and other additives as materials for the production of bio-based packaging jars and cosmetic products. For the composition of the packaging an orange powder (dehydrated wastes) was found to be the best performing, while orange comminute, which results from milling the orange peel, was most suitable for composition of the cosmetic formulations. Polylactic acid was compounded with citrus fibres by up to 25 wt.% by twin screw extrusion and processed via injection moulding, one of the most widespread processing technologies for producing rigid packaging containers. Composites were characterized, defining their mechanical, morphological and thermal properties. Validation of packaging thermostability performance was performed by Heat deflection temperature in compliance to ISO75 and VICAT softening temperature in accordance with ISO306. Compatibility tests of packaging demonstrators with newly formulated cosmetic products has been investigated as well. An accelerated compatibility test of the cosmetic jars with water and oil-based simulants was performed at ambient temperature, -5 °C, and at 45 °C. The results indicated that new cosmetic packaging are not consistent with water-based cosmetic formulations but are compatible with products based on natural oils. While the price of these products is generally higher than those using conventional plastics, they are competitive for premium cosmetic brands.


Editorial History

  • Received: 11 Sep 2023
  • Revised: 18 Dec 2023
  • Accepted: 18 Dec 2023
  • Available online: 31 Dec 2023


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