an official journal of: published by:
Editor in Chief: RAFFAELLO COSSU

ASSESSMENT OF THE DEGREE AND SOURCE OF POLYOLEFIN RECYCLATES CONTAMINATION

  • Ayah Alassali - Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Hamburg University of Technology, Germany
  • Wolfgang Calmano - Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Hamburg University of Technology, Germany
  • Kerstin Kuchta - Institute of Environmental Technology and Energy Economics, Technische Universitat Hamburg-Harburg, Germany

Share


Released under CC BY-NC-ND

Copyright: © 2021 CISA Publisher


Abstract

This study has the aim of analysing the degree of contamination of recycled polyolefin purchased from the market by focusing on the content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Additionally, the impact of the mechanical recycling process on the polyolefin chemical quality was investigated. Results indicated that recycled polyethylene (PE) had higher PAHs concentrations by 10 to 20 folds in comparison to the pristine PE. Similarly, recycled polypropylene (PP) indicated higher PAHs concentrations in comparison to the virgin polypropylene, yet with lower degree of difference. Analysing the 8 indicators assigned by the Regulation EU 1272/2013 amending REACH Annex XVII, all recycled specimens showed concentrations lower than the limit of 0.5 mg kg-1, which indicates that there is no restriction in material’s utilisation. This study functioned as a preliminary assessment to check the suitability of recycled plastics for their further utilisation. Additionally, the study indicates that polyolefin can experience quality deterioration when uncontrolled recycling conditions are applied.

Keywords


Editorial History

  • Received: 13 Sep 2021
  • Revised: 26 Nov 2021
  • Accepted: 26 Nov 2021
  • Available online: 19 Dec 2021

References

Alassali, A. (2020). Quality deterioration factors of the plastics closed-loop recycling. [Doctoral Thesis. Hamburg University of Technology] Hamburger Berichte http://hdl.handle.net/11420/8619

Alassali, A., Barouta, D., Tirion, H., Moldt, Y., Kuchta, K. (2020a). Towards a high quality recycling of plastics from waste electrical and electronic equipment through separation of contaminated fractions. In Journal of Hazardous Materials 387, 121741
DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.121741

Alassali, A., Calmano, W., Gidarakos, E., Kuchta, K. (2020b). The degree and source of plastic recyclates contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. RSC Advances 10 (73), 44989–44996
DOI 10.1039/D0RA08554E

Alassali, A., Fiore, S., Kuchta, K. (2018). Assessment of plastic waste materials degradation through near infrared spectroscopy. Waste Management 82, 71–81.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2018.10.010

Alassali, A., Picuno, C., Bébien T., Fiore, S., Kuchta, K. (2020c) Validation of near infrared spectroscopy as an age-prediction method for plastics. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 154, 104555.
DOI 10.1016/j.resconrec.2019.104555

Al-Salem, S. M., Lettieri, P., Baeyens, J. (2009). Recycling and recovery routes of plastic solid waste (PSW): A review. Waste Management 29 (10), 2625–2643.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2009.06.004

Camacho, W., Karlsson, S. (2000). Quality-determination of recycled plastic packaging waste by identification of contaminants by GC–MS after microwave assisted extraction (MAE). Polymer Degradation and Stability 71 (1), 123–134.
DOI 10.1016/S0141-3910(00)00163-4

Eriksen, M.K., Damgaard, A., Boldrin, A., Astrup, T.F. (2019). Quality assessment and circularity potential of recovery systems for household plastic waste. Journal of Industrial Ecology 23 (1), 156–168.
DOI 10.1111/jiec.12822

European Commission (2006). Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 - Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). 18 December 2006 concerning the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) and establishing a European Chemicals Agency

Geiss, O., Senaldi, C., Bianchi, I., Lucena, A., Tirendi, S., Barrero-Moreno, J. (2018). A fast and selective method for the determination of 8 carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rubber and plastic materials. Journal of Chromatography A 1566, 13–22. https://
DOI 10.1016/j.chroma.2018.06.047

German Environment Agency (2016). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Harmful to the Environment! Toxic! Inevitable? Edited by German Environment Agency. Available online at: https://www.umweltbundesamt.de/en/ publikationen/polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons, checked on 1/13/2020

Hahladakis, J.N., Iacovidou, E. (2019). An overview of the challenges and trade-offs in closing the loop of post-consumer plastic waste (PCPW): Focus on recycling. Journal of Hazardous Materials 380, 120887
DOI 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2019.120887

Lassen, P., Hoffmann, L., & Thomsen, M. (2011). PAHs in toys and childcare products. Danish Minestry of the Environment. Environmental Protection Agency. Available online at: http://www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publications/2012/01/978-87-92779-49-6.pdf

National Center for Biotechnology Information: PubChem Database. Phenanthrene, CID=995. Available online at https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Phenanthrene, checked on 3/24/2020

Rochman, C.M., Hoh, E., Hentschel, B.T., Kaye, S. (2013). Long-term field measurement of sorption of organic contaminants to five types of plastic pellets: implications for plastic marine debris. Environmental Science & Technology 47 (3), 1646–1654.
DOI 10.1021/es303700s

Sanchez, F.A.C., Boudaoud, H., Camargo, M., Pearce, J.M. (2020). Plastic recycling in additive manufacturing: a systematic literature review and opportunities for the circular economy. Journal of Cleaner Production, 121602.
DOI 10.1016/j.jclepro.2020.121602

Teuten, E.L., Rowland, S.J., Galloway, T.S., Thompson, R.C. (2007). Potential for plastics to transport hydrophobic contaminants. Environmental Science & Technology 41 (22), 7759–7764.
DOI 10.1021/es071737s


may
18