an official journal of: published by:
Editor in Chief: RAFFAELLO COSSU


  • Vu Quang Huy - Course of Civil Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, Japan
  • Yukihiro Kohata - Course of Civil Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, Japan
  • Hideki Yoshida - Course of Civil Engineering, Muroran Institute of Technology, Japan

DOI 10.31025/2611-4135/2020.13945

Released under CC BY-NC-ND

Copyright: © 2020 CISA Publisher

Editorial History

  • Received: 19 Oct 2019
  • Revised: 17 Feb 2020
  • Accepted: 11 Mar 2020
  • Available online: 08 May 2020


The semi-aerobic landfill concept, which is based on passive aeration, is the compulsory standard for planning new landfill projects in Japan. The semi-aerobic landfill concept is also applied in several other countries because of its low construction and operating costs. The landfill gas (LFG) component and the LFG temperature are the main indicators of the aerobization of semi-aerobic landfills. Analysis of LFG, its concentration, and its temperature can be easily carried out on-site to evaluate the passive aeration of an operating semi-aerobic landfill. Therefore, this study observed LFG temperatures and LFG components to assess the partial aerobization within an operating semi-aerobic landfill. The observational data revealed that the methane (CH4) gas concentration of most of the main LFG venting pipes (VPs) was below 15%. The aerobic condition happened effectively surrounding the main LFGVP M2 because over the observation period, the ratio of CH4 to CO2 was less than 1.0. The highest gas temperature was above 60°C within the main LFGVP M2, and there was a trend of high temperatures above 40°C for more than 5 years before the temperature declined to 20°C in the most recent observation. The high LFG temperatures were recorded in the winter months due to the buoyancy effect. High temperature and the CH4/CO2 ratio less than 1.0 potentially representing good indicators showed that aerobic decomposition is becoming dominant. The study showed clearly that the aerobic biodegradation performance in this semi-aerobic landfill is extremely good.



Ahmadifar, M., Sartaj, M., Abdallah, M., 2016. Investigating the performance of aerobic, semi-aerobic, and anaerobic bioreactor landfills for MSW management in developing countries. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 18, 703–714.
DOI 10.1007/s10163-015-0372-0

Antonis, M., Haris, K., 2009. The concept of sustainable landfills. Presented at the 2009 World Waste Congress, Lisbon

ATSDR, 2001. Chapter 2: Landfill Gas Basics. Landfill Gas Primer, an Overview for Environmental Health Professionals, pp. 3–14

Barlaz, M.A., Bryan, F.S., Francis, L.D.L.R.I., 2010. Anaerobic Biodegradation of Solid Waste, in: Environmental Microbiology, 2nd Ed. Wiley-Blackwell, Hoboken, New Jersey, pp. 281–300

Benson, C.H., 2017. Characteristics of Gas and Leachate at an Elevated Temperature Landfill, in: Geotechnical Frontiers 2017. Presented at the Geotechnical Frontiers 2017, American Society of Civil Engineers, Orlando, Florida, pp. 313–322.
DOI 10.1061/9780784480434.034

Bouazza, A., Nahlawi, H., Aylward, M., 2011. In Situ Temperature Monitoring in an Organic-Waste Landfill Cell. J. Geotech. Geoenviron. Eng. 137, 1286–1289.
DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)GT.1943-5606.0000533

Cooney, C.L., Wang, D.I.C., Mateles, R.I., 1969. Measurement of heat evolution and correlation with oxygen consumption during microbial growth. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 11, 269–281.
DOI 10.1002/bit.260110302

Cossu, R., 2012. The environmentally sustainable geological repository: The modern role of landfilling. Waste Management 32, 243–244.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2011.11.005

Cossu, R., 2009. From triangles to cycles. Waste Management 29, 2915–2917.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2009.09.002

Cossu, R., 2005. The Sustainable Landfilling Concept, in: Proceedings Sardinia 2005. Presented at the Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, 3-7 October 2005, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy, p. 9

Cossu, R., Morello, L., Raga, R., Cerminara, G., 2016. Biogas production enhancement using semi-aerobic pre-aeration in a hybrid bioreactor landfill. Waste Management 55, 83–92.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2015.10.025

FEMA, 2002. Landfill Fires Their Magnitude, Charaacteristics, and Mitigation.


Grossule, V., Lavagnolo, M.C., 2017. Innovative Semi-aerobic Landfill Management in Tropical Countries, in: Proceedings Sardinia 2017. Presented at the Sixteenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, 2 - 6 October 2017, CISA, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy, p. 14

Grossule, V., Morello, L., Cossu, R., Lavagnolo, M.C., 2018. Bioreactor Landfills: Comparison and kinetics of the Different Systems. DETRITUS - Multidisciplinary Journal for Waste Resources & Residues 03, 100–113.
DOI 10.31025/2611-4135/2018.13703

Hanashima, M., Yamasaki, K., Kuroki, T., Onishi, K., 1981. Heat and gas flow analysis in semiaerobic landfill. Journal of the Environmental Engineering Division 107, 1–9

Hirata, O., Matsufuji, Y., Tachifuji, A., Yanase, R., 2012. Waste stabilization mechanism by a recirculatory semi-aerobic landfill with the aeration system. J Mater Cycles Waste Manag 14, 47–51.
DOI 10.1007/s10163-011-0036-7

Hrad, M., Gamperling, O., Huber-Humer, M., 2013. Comparison between lab- and full-scale applications of in situ aeration of an old landfill and assessment of long-term emission development after completion. Waste Management 33, 2061–2073.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2013.01.027

Huang, Q., Yang, Y., Pang, X., Wang, Q., 2008. Evolution on qualities of leachate and landfill gas in the semi-aerobic landfill. Journal of Environmental Sciences 20, 499–504.
DOI 10.1016/S1001-0742(08)62086-0

IPCC, 2006. IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories. Prepared by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

Ishigaki, T., Hirata, O., Oda, T., Wangyao, K., Chiemchaisri, C., Towprayoon, S., Lee, D.-H., Yamada, M., 2011. Greenhouse Gas Emission from Solid Waste Disposal Sites in Asia, in: Integrated Waste Management. InTech

Jafari, N.H., Stark, T.D., Thalhamer, T., 2017. Spatial and temporal characteristics of elevated temperatures in municipal solid waste landfills. Waste Management 59, 286–301.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2016.10.052

Jeong, S., Nam, A., Yi, S.-M., Kim, J.Y., 2015. Field assessment of semi-aerobic condition and the methane correction factor for the semi-aerobic landfills provided by IPCC guidelines. Waste Management 36, 197–203.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2014.10.020

Kim, H.-J., Yoshida, H., Matsuto, T., Tojo, Y., Matsuo, T., 2010. Air and landfill gas movement through passive gas vents installed in closed landfills. Waste Management 30, 465–472.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2009.10.005

Martin, J.W., Stark, T.D., Thalhamer, T., Gerbasi-Graf, G.T., Gortner, R.E., 2013. Detection of Aluminum Waste Reactions and Waste Fires. J. Hazard. Toxic Radioact. Waste 17, 164–174.
DOI 10.1061/(ASCE)HZ.2153-5515.0000171

Matsufuji, Y., Kobayashi, H., Tanaka, A., Ando, S., Kawabata, T., Hanashima, M., 1996. Generation of greenhouse effect gases by different landfill types and methane gas control, in: Proceedings of 7th ISWA International Congress and Exhibition, Yokohama, Japan. Yokohama, Japan, pp. 230–237

Matsufuji, Y., Tachifuji, A., 2007. The history and status of semi-aerobic landfills in Japan and Malaysia, in: Landfill Aeration, IWWG Monograph. CISA, pp. 109–116

Matsuto, T., Zhang, X., Matsuo, T., Yamada, S., 2015. Onsite survey on the mechanism of passive aeration and air flow path in a semi-aerobic landfill. Waste Management 36, 204–212.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2014.11.007

Morello, L., Raga, R., Lavagnolo, M.C., Pivato, A., Ali, M., Yue, D., Cossu, R., 2017. The S.An.A.® concept: Semi-aerobic, Anaerobic, Aerated bioreactor landfill. Waste Management 67, 193–202.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2017.05.006

Pirt, S.J., 1978. Aerobic and anaerobic microbial digestion in waste reclamation. Journal of Applied Chemistry and Biotechnology 28, 232–236

Rees, J.F., 1980. Optimisation of methane production and refuse decomposition in landfills by temperature control. J. Chem. Technol. Biotechnol. 30, 458–465.
DOI 10.1002/jctb.503300158

Ritzkowski, M., Heyer, K.-U., Stegmann, R., 2006. Fundamental processes and implications during in situ aeration of old landfills. Waste Management 26, 356–372.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2005.11.009

Ritzkowski, M., Stegmann, R., 2012. Landfill aeration worldwide: Concepts, indications and findings. Waste Management 32, 1411–1419.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2012.02.020

Shimaoka, T., Matsufuji, Y., Hanashima, M., 2000. Characteristic and Mechanism of Semi-Aerobic Landfill on Stabilization of Solid Waste. Presented at the Intercontinental Landfill Research Symposium

Stegmann, R., Ritzkowski, M., 2007. Landfill Aeration, IWWG Monograph. CISA

Theng, L.C., Matsufuji, Y., Hassan, M.N., 2005. Implementation of the semi-aerobic landfill system (Fukuoka method) in developing countries: A Malaysia cost analysis. Waste Management 25, 702–711.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2005.01.008

Wu, X., Yue, B., Huang, Q., Wang, Q., Lin, Y., Zhang, W., Yan, Z., 2017. Spatio-temporal variation of landfill gas in pilot-scale semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfills over 5 years. Journal of Environmental Sciences 54, 288–297.
DOI 10.1016/j.jes.2016.09.015

Yanase, R., Matsufuji, Y., Michihiro, S., Tashiro, T., Shigeo, N., 2010. Study of the air inflow velocity in the semi aerobic landfill site (in Japanese), in: Proceedings of the 21th Annual Conference of the Japan Society of Material Cycles and Waste Management.
DOI 10.14912/jsmcwm.

Yang, Yangfei, Yue, B., Yang, Yu, Huang, Q., 2012. Influence of semi-aerobic and anaerobic landfill operation with leachate recirculation on stabilization processes. Waste Manag Res 30, 255–265.
DOI 10.1177/0734242X11413328

Yesiller, N., Hanson, J.L., Yee, E.H., 2015. Waste heat generation: A comprehensive review. Waste Management 42, 166–179.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2015.04.004

Yesiller, N., Hanson, J.L., Yoshida, H., 2011. Landfill Temperatures under Variable Decomposition Conditions, in: Geo-Frontiers 2011. Presented at the Geo-Frontiers Congress 2011, American Society of Civil Engineers, Dallas, Texas, United States, pp. 1055–1065.
DOI 10.1061/41165(397)108

Yoshida, H., Rowe, R.K., 2003. Consideration of Landfill Liner Temperature, in: Proceedings Sardinia 2003,. Presented at the Ninth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, 6-10 October, CISA, Environmental Sanitary Engineering Centre, Italy, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Italy

Zhang, X., Matsuto, T., 2013. Assessment of internal condition of waste in a roofed landfill. Waste Management 33, 102–108.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2012.08.008