an official journal of: published by:
Editor in Chief: RAFFAELLO COSSU


  • Motasem Saidan - Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Jordan, Jordan
  • Ammar Abu Drais - Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Jordan, Jordan
  • Ehab AL-Manaseer - GreenPlans Environmental Consultation Ltd., Jordan
  • Murad Alshishani - UNDP, Jordan
  • Colette Linton - Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Jordan, Jordan

DOI 10.31025/2611-4135/2020.13943

Released under CC BY-NC-ND

Copyright: © 2019 CISA Publisher

Editorial History

  • Received: 12 Nov 2019
  • Revised: 21 Feb 2020
  • Accepted: 03 Mar 2020
  • Available online: 08 May 2020


The present study outlines a cohesive compilation of analysis of the involvement of women in decision-making and leadership in the solid waste sector in Jordan. The socio-economic challenges have been catalyzed by the influx of Syrian refugees into the host communities and camps in Jordan. Hence, deterioration of municipal solid waste services have centered on and proposed that women engagement in the Solid Waste (SW) sector to provide opportunities that aim to improve livelihoods by producing an avenue for added income generation through the recycling and sorting scheme; as well as the cost revenue implications for the municipalities. Since 2015, projects added prospects for continued engagement of women and have drastically increased their involvement by filling management positions in the development and operation of municipal SW Transfer Stations (TSs), including heading the design and operation of the TS, and the recycling project. While 54 employment opportunities were created within North Shouneh SW pilot project; 37,794 women jobs of recycling and composting were made available by the cash for work initiative throughout 2016-2017, as well as, 60 women were employed in Zaatari camp. Moreover, when CBOs are directly involved, there has been more opportunity to engage women in employment in the solid waste sector.



Aboelnga, H., Saidan, M., Al-Weshah, R., Sturm, M., Ribbe, L., Frechen, F.B., 2018. Component analysis for optimal leakage management in Madaba, Jordan. J. Water Supply Res. T. 67(4): 384-396

Ahmed, S., Ali, M., 2004. Partnerships for solid waste management in developing countries: linking theories to realities. Habitat Int. 28: 467–479

Al-Addous, M., Saidan, M.N., Bdour, M., et al., 2019. Evaluation of Biogas Production from the Co-Digestion of Municipal Food Waste and Wastewater Sludge at Refugee Camps Using an Automated Methane Potential Test System. Energies 12(1): 1-11

Al-Addous, M., Saidan, M.N., Bdour, M,, et al., 2020. Key aspects and feasibility assessment of a proposed wind farm in Jordan. International Journal of Low-Carbon Technologies,
DOI 10.1093/ijlct/ctz062

Al-Awad, T.K., Saidan, M.N., Gareau, B.J., 2018. Halon management and ozone-depleting substances control in Jordan. International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics 18(3): 391-408

Aldayyat, E., Saidan, M.N., Abu Saleh, M.A., Hamdan, S., Linton, C., 2019. Solid Waste Management in Jordan: Impacts and Analysis. J Chem Technol Metall 54(2): 454-462

Al-Hamamre, Z., Saidan, M., Hararah, M., et al., 2017. Wastes and biomass materials as sustainable-renewable energy resources for Jordan. Renewable Sustainable Energy Reviews 67: 295-314

Al Kharouf, Al-Jribia, 2016. The Evolution of Women's Political Participation in Various Public Offices in Jordan

Almasi, A., Mohammadib, M., Azizi, A., Berizi, Z., Shamsi, K., Shahbazi A., Mosavi S.A., 2019. Assessing the knowledge, attitude and practice of the kermanshahi women towards reducing, recycling and reusing of municipal solid waste. Resources, Conservation and Recycling14: 329-338

Alrabie, K., Saidan, M.N., 2018. A preliminary solar-hydrogen system for Jordan: impacts assessment and scenarios analysis. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 43(19): 9211-9223

Asi, E., Busch, G., Nkengla, L., 2013. The Evolving Role of Women in Sustainable Waste Management in Developing Countries – A Proactive Perspective?. National Conference on Integrated Waste Management and Green Energy Engineering. April 15-16

Bench, M., Woodard, R., Harder, M., Stantzos, N., 2005. Waste minimisation: home digestion trials of biodegradable waste. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 45: 84-94

Bernad-Beltran, D., Simo, A., Bovea, M.D., 2014. Attitude towards the incorporation of the selective collection of biowaste in a municipal solid waste management system. A case study. Waste Manage. 34: 2434-2444

Bhawal Mukherji, S., Sekiyama, M., Mino, T., Chaturvedi, B., 2016. Resident knowledge and willingness to engage in waste management in Delhi, India. Sustainability 8 (10): 1065

Ezebilo, E.E., 2013. Willingness to pay for improved residential waste management in a developing country. Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol. 10: 413-422

GTZ, 2005. Private Sector Involvement in Solid Waste Management- Avoiding Problems and Building on Successes. Deutsche Gesellschaft fürbTechnische Zusammenarbeit (GTZ) GmbHb, Eschborn, Germany

Ibanez Prieto, A., 2018. Women Rights Movement Hails Unprecedented Number of Women in Government. The Jordan Times. (accessed on 10 October 2019)

Iyer, E.S., Kashyap, R.K., 2007. Consumer recycling: role of incentives, information, and social class. J. Consum. Behav. 6: 32-47.
DOI 10.1002/cb

Jabr, G., Saidan, M., Al-Hmoud, N., 2019. Phosphorus Recovery by Struvite Formation from Al Samra Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant in Jordan. Desalination and Water Treatment,
DOI 10.5004/dwt.2019.23608

Khasawneh, H., Saidan, M., Al-Addous, M., 2019. Utilization of hydrogen as clean energy resource in chlor-alkali process. Energy Exploration & Exploitation 37(3): 1053–1072

Laor, P., Suma, Y., Keawdounglek, V., Hongtong, A., Apidechkul, T., Pasukphun, N., 2018. Knowledge, attitude and practice of municipal solid waste management among highland residents in Northern Thailand. J. Health Res. 32 (2): 123-131

Malkawi, K., 2015. Refugees constitute third of Jordan population – World Bank Official. The Jordan Times, Jordan

Mehra, R., Du, T., Nghia, N., Lam, N., Chuyen, T., Tuan, B., Tran, P., Nhan, N., 1996. Women in waste collection and recycling in Ho Chi Minh city. Popul. Environ. 18: 187–199

Ministry of Municipal Affairs (MoMA), 2015. Development of a National Strategy to Improve the Municipal Solid Waste Management Sector in the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. Amman, Jordan

Ministry of Water & Irrigation, MWI, 2015. National Water Strategy 2016-2025, Amman, Jordan

Moh, Y., 2017. Solid waste management transformation and future challenges of source separation and recycling practice in Malaysia. Resour. Conserv. Recycl. 116: 1-14

OXFAM, 2017) TRASH TALK- Turning waste into work in Jordan’s Za’atari refugee camp. Oxfam Discussion Papers. Oxfam International August 2017

Saidan, M.N., Ansour, L.M., Saidan, H., 2017a. Management of Plastic Bags Waste: An Assessment of Scenarios in Jordan. J .Chem. Technol. Metall. 52 (1): 148–154

Saidan, M.N., Abu Drais, A., Al-Manaseer, E., 2017b. Solid waste composition analysis and recycling evaluation: Zaatari Syrian Refugees Camp, Jordan. Waste Manage. 61:58–66

Saidan, M.N., Al-Yazjeen, H., Abdalla, A. et al., 2018. Assessment of on-site treatment process of institutional building’s wastewater. Processes 6(4):1-13

Saidan, M.N., 2019. Cross-sectional survey of non-hazardous waste composition and quantities in industrial sector and potential recycling in Jordan. Environ. Nanotechnol. Monit. Manage. 12:100227

Saidan, M., Khasawneh, H.J., Aboelnga, H., Meric, S., Kalavrouziotis, I., Hayek, B.O., Al-Momany, S., Al Malla, M., Porro, J.C., 2019. Baseline carbon emission assessment in water utilities in Jordan using ECAM tool. Baseline carbon emission assessment in water utilities in Jordan using ECAM tool. J Water Supply Res T. 68:460–73

Saidan, M.N., Abu Drais, A., Linton, C. et al., 2020. Solid Waste Characterization and Recycling in Syrian Refugees Hosting Communities in Jordan. In: Negm AM and Noama E (eds) Waste Management in MENA Regions, Earth and Environmental Sciences Series, Applied Environmental Science and Engineering for a Sustainable Future, Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature

Saphores, J., Nixon, H., Ogunseitan, O., Shapiro, A., 2006. Household willingness to recycle electronic waste – an application to California. Environ. Behav. 38:183-208

Schwab, K., Sala-i-Martin, X., 2017. The Global Competitiveness Report 2017 – 2018. World Economic Forum

Roy, N., Schmid, L., 2018. Labour-Intensive Cash for Work Measures and Structured Employment Promotion for Refugees and Vulnerable Groups. GIZ Jordan, 17th May, 2018 UNHCR

Tarawneh, A., Saidan, M., 2013. Households awareness, behaviors, and willingness to participate in E-waste management in Jordan. Int J Ecosys 3(5): 124-131

The World Bank, 2017. Progress Towards Gender Equality in the Middle East and North Africa Region: A descriptive note on progress and gaps towards gender equality and women’s empowerment in the MNA region, produced to provide the situational context to the World Bank Group’s Regional Action Plan (RGAP) FY18-23

UNDP, 2015. Socio-economic Inequality in Jordan. Amman, Jordan

UNHCR, 2017. Cash for Work in Za’atari Camp. Basic Needs and Livelihoods Working Group. April 2017.