an official journal of: published by:
Editor in Chief: RAFFAELLO COSSU

PYROLYSIS OF PELLETS PREPARED FROM GROUNDNUT SHELL AND CRUDE GLYCEROL: IN-SITU UTILIZATION OF PYRO-GAS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PRODUCTS

  • Mayankkumar Parmar - Thermo-Chemical Conversion Division, Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute (SPRERI), South Africa
  • Bhavin Soni - Thermo-Chemical Conversion Division, Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute (SPRERI), South Africa
  • Arth Jayesh Shah - Thermo-Chemical Conversion Division, Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute (SPRERI), South Africa
  • Sanjib Kumar Karmee - Thermo-Chemical Conversion Division, Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute (SPRERI), South Africa

Share


Released under CC BY-NC-ND

Copyright: © 2022 CISA Publisher


Abstract

During biodiesel production process crude glycerol (a polyol) is obtained as a by-product. In this paper, an effort has been made for using it for pellet production from groundnut shell. Three types of pellets containing 20 wt%, 40 wt% and 60 wt% crude glycerol were prepared. Palletisation led to easy handling of biomass and also increases energy density. Furthermore, characterisation of prepared pellets was performed and subsequently, pyrolized. An increase of volatile matter from 72.45 wt% to 85.18 wt% in pellets was noted with addition of glycerol. Pyrolysis of glycerol containing pellets was carried out in batch (0.5kg) scale along with in-situ circulation of generated pyro-gas. Bio-oil yield increased from 30 wt% to 41 wt% in batch scale as glycerol content increased from 0 wt% to 60 wt%. Pyrolysis products were thoroughly characterised to understand the effects of crude glycerol addition. Calorific value of bio-char was increased from 20.89 MJ/kg to 23.67 MJ/kg as glycerol content increased. Calorific value of bio-oil was 32.66 MJ/kg. The pyro-gas produced was utilized to heat the pyrolysis reactor. Pyro-gas yield increased from 28 wt% to 32 wt% in batch scale as glycerol content increased. In-situ utilization of pyro-gas led to ~ 17% electricity saving.

Keywords


Editorial History

  • Received: 15 Jul 2022
  • Revised: 25 Oct 2022
  • Accepted: 21 Dec 2022
  • Available online: 08 Mar 2023

References

Basu P (2018) Biomass gasification, pyrolysis and torrefaction: Practical design and theory

Bai, X., Wang, G., Gong, C., Yu, Y., Liu, W., & Wang, D. (2017). Co-pelletizing characteristics of torrefied wheat straw with peanut shell. Bioresource technology, 233, 373-381

Bartocci, P., Bidini, G., Asdrubali, F., Beatrice, C., Frusteri, F., & Fantozzi, F. (2018). Batch pyrolysis of pellet made of biomass and crude glycerol: mass and energy balances. Renewable Energy, 124, 172-179

Collins, S., & Ghodke, P. (2018). Kinetic parameter evaluation of groundnut shell pyrolysis through use of thermogravimetric analysis. Journal of environmental chemical engineering, 6(4), 4736-4742

Caillat, S., & Vakkilainen, E. (2013). Large-scale biomass combustion plants: an overview. Biomass combustion science, technology and engineering, 189-224

Demir, V. G., Yaman, P., Efe, M. O., & Yuksel, H. Production of Bio-pellets Derived from Sawdust and Crude Glycerol

Directorate of economics and statistics G of I (2018) Kharif 2018 Survey

Donev JMKC (2018) Energy Education-Energy density

Duc, P. A., Dharanipriya, P., Velmurugan, B. K., & Shanmugavadivu, M. (2019). Groundnut shell-a beneficial bio-waste. Biocatalysis and Agricultural Biotechnology, 20, 101206

Duan, F., Zhang, J. P., Chyang, C. S., Wang, Y. J., & Tso, J. (2014). Combustion of crushed and pelletized peanut shells in a pilot-scale fluidized-bed combustor with flue gas recirculation. Fuel processing technology, 128, 28-35

Fasina, O. O. (2008). Physical properties of peanut hull pellets. Bioresource technology, 99(5), 1259-1266

García Fernández, R., González Vázquez, M. D. P., Pevida García, C., & Rubiera González, F. (2017). Pelletization properties of raw and torrefied pine sawdust: Effect of co-pelletization, temperature, moisture content and glycerol addition

Jamradloedluk, J., & Lertsatitthanakorn, C. (2015). Properties of densified-refuse derived fuel using glycerin as a binder. Procedia Engineering, 100, 505-510

Kluska, J., Turzyński, T., Ochnio, M., & Kardaś, D. (2020). Characteristics of ash formation in the process of combustion of pelletised leather tannery waste and hardwood pellets. Renewable energy, 149, 1246-1253

Kyauta, E. E., Adisa, A. B., Abdulkadir, L. N., & Balogun, S. (2015). Production and comparative study of pellets from maize cobs and groundnut shell as fuels for domestic use. Carbon, 14, 19-73

Lehtikangas, P. (2001). Quality properties of pelletised sawdust, logging residues and bark. Biomass and bioenergy, 20(5), 351-360

Li. H., Liu, X., Legros, R., Bi, X. T., Lim, C. J., & Sokhansanj, S. (2012). Pelletization of torrefied sawdust and properties of torrefied pellets. Applied Energy, 93, 680-685

Lubwama, M., & Yiga, V. A. (2017). Development of groundnut shells and bagasse briquettes as sustainable fuel sources for domestic cooking applications in Uganda. Renewable energy, 111, 532-542

Lingegowda, D. C., Kumar, J. K., Prasad, A. D., Zarei, M., & Gopal, S. (2012). FTIR spectroscopic studies on Cleome gynandra–comparative analysis of functional group before and after extraction. Romanian Journal of Biophysics, 22(3-4), 137-143

Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Government of India Ministry of New and Renewable Energy Government of India

Novo, L. P., Gurgel, L. V. A., Marabezi, K., & da Silva Curvelo, A. A. (2011). Delignification of sugarcane bagasse using glycerol–water mixtures to produce pulps for saccharification. Bioresource technology, 102(21), 10040-10046

Oyelaran, O. A., Bolaji, B. O., Waheed, M. A., & Adekunle, M. F. (2015). Characterization of briquettes produced from groundnut shell and waste paper admixture

Paulauskas, R., Džiugys, A., & Striūgas, N. (2015). Experimental investigation of wood pellet swelling and shrinking during pyrolysis. Fuel, 142, 145-151

Radhakrishnan, N., & Gnanamoorthi, V. (2015). Pyrolysis of groundnut shell biomass to produce bio-oil. J. Chem. Pharm. Sci, 9, 34-36

Serrano, C., Monedero, E., Lapuerta, M., & Portero, H. (2011). Effect of moisture content, particle size and pine addition on quality parameters of barley straw pellets. Fuel Processing Technology, 92(3), 699-706

Soni, B., & Karmee, S. K. (2020). Towards a continuous pilot scale pyrolysis based biorefinery for production of biooil and biochar from sawdust. Fuel, 271, 117570

The Engineering Toolbox Fuels - Higher and Lower Calorific Values. https://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/fuels-higher-calorific-values-d_169.html

Tinwala, F., Mohanty, P., Parmar, S., Patel, A., & Pant, K. K. (2015). Intermediate pyrolysis of agro-industrial biomasses in bench-scale pyrolyser: product yields and its characterization. Bioresource Technology, 188, 258-264

UNECE Methane Management. https://www.unece.org/energywelcome/areas-of-work/methane-management/the-challenge. Accessed 25 Nov 2020

Undri, A., Abou-Zaid, M., Briens, C., Berruti, F., Rosi, L., Bartoli, M., ... & Frediani, P. (2015). Bio-oil from pyrolysis of wood pellets using a microwave multimode oven and different microwave absorbers. Fuel, 153, 464-482

Verma, V. K., Bram, S., Delattin, F., Laha, P., Vandendael, I., Hubin, A., & De Ruyck, J. (2012). Agro-pellets for domestic heating boilers: Standard laboratory and real life performance. Applied Energy, 90(1), 17-23

Valliyappan, T., Bakhshi, N. N., & Dalai, A. K. (2008). Pyrolysis of glycerol for the production of hydrogen or syn gas. Bioresource technology, 99(10), 4476-4483

Wibowo, S., & Lestari, N. (2018). Effect of peanut shell torrefaction on qualities of the produced bio-pellet. Reaktor, 18(04), 183-193

Wang, S., Song, T., Yin, S., Hartge, E. U., Dymala, T., Shen, L., ... & Werther, J. (2020). Syngas, tar and char behavior in chemical looping gasification of sawdust pellet in fluidized bed. Fuel, 270, 117464

Yang, Y., Brammer, J. G., Wright, D. G., Scott, J. A., Serrano, C., & Bridgwater, A. V. (2017). Combined heat and power from the intermediate pyrolysis of biomass materials: performance, economics and environmental impact. Applied Energy, 191, 639-652

Yang, Y., Brammer, J. G., Mahmood, A. S. N., & Hornung, A. (2014). Intermediate pyrolysis of biomass energy pellets for producing sustainable liquid, gaseous and solid fuels. Bioresource technology, 169, 794-799

Zhou, C., Zhang, Q., Arnold, L., Yang, W., & Blasiak, W. (2013). A study of the pyrolysis behaviors of pelletized recovered municipal solid waste fuels. Applied energy, 107, 173-182

Hai, Abdul, G. Bharath, Muhammad Daud, K. Rambabu, Imtiaz Ali, Shadi W. Hasan, PauLoke Show, and Fawzi Banat. “Valorization of groundnut shell via pyrolysis: Product distribution, thermodynamic analysis, kinetic estimation, and artificial neural network modeling.” Chemosphere 283 (2021): 131162


october
9