an official journal of: published by:
Editor in Chief: RAFFAELLO COSSU
Full Lenght Research Article

POTENTIAL IMPACTS OF THE EU CIRCULAR ECONOMY PACKAGE ON THE UTILIZATION OF SECONDARY RESOURCES

  • Johann Fellner - Christian Doppler Laboratory for Anthropogenic Resources, Institute for Water Quality, Resource and Waste Management, TU Wien, Austria
  • David Laner - Christian Doppler Laboratory for Anthropogenic Resources, Institute for Water Quality, Resource and Waste Management, TU Wien, Austria
  • Rainer Warrings - Christian Doppler Laboratory for Anthropogenic Resources, Institute for Water Quality, Resource and Waste Management, TU Wien, Austria
  • Kerstin Schustereder - Christian Doppler Laboratory for Anthropogenic Resources, Institute for Water Quality, Resource and Waste Management, TU Wien, Austria
  • Jakob Lederer - Christian Doppler Laboratory for Anthropogenic Resources, Institute for Water Quality, Resource and Waste Management, TU Wien, Austria

DOI 10.31025/2611-4135/2018.13666

Released under CC BY-NC-ND

Copyright: © 2018 Cisa Publisher

Editorial History

  • Received: 25 Jan 2018
  • Revised: 04 Apr 2018
  • Accepted: 20 Jun 2018
  • Available online: 30 Jun 2018

Abstract

The dependency of the European Union on the imports of primary raw materials was one of the major drivers for the release of the circular economy strategy, in which resource input and waste, emission, and energy leakage are minimised by closing material loops. As part of the shift towards a circular economy, proposals introducing new waste-management targets regarding reuse, recycling and landfilling have been made. In this study the potential impact of these new targets for packaging waste (PW) and Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) on the EU´s supply of four raw materials, namely Iron & Steel, Aluminium, Plastics and Paper & Board, has been assessed. Thereto the method of material flow analysis has been applied in order to evaluate current and potential future flows of secondary raw material. The results of the investigations indicate that for Iron & Steel and Paper & Board already today about 50% of the EU´s production is made out of secondary raw materials. For Aluminium (36%) and Plastics (10%) this share however is significantly lower. Implementing higher recycling targets according to circular economy package would increase the domestic supply of secondary materials between 0.6% (Iron & Steel) and 70% (Plastics). Since today significant amounts of recyclables (equivalent to more than 10% of the total domestic raw material consumption) are already not utilized by the European industry but exported, it is highly questionable whether these additional quantities of recyclables derived from post-consumer waste will substitute primary raw materials in the EU. Quality constraints of the industry as well as production capacities for secondary raw materials in place might limit the domestic utilization of recyclables liberated by the circular economy. Hence, additional policy measures (e.g. targets for secondary production) seem to be necessary to enhance the rate of secondary production within the European Union.

Keywords


References

Brunner, C., 2017. European Circular Economy Strategy - Analysis of Steel, Aluminium and Copper Scrap Flows between the EU-28 and the World, Institute for Water Quality, Resource and Waste Management. TU Wien, Vienna, p. 79.

Brunner, P. H. and H. Rechberger. 2004. Practical handbook of material flow analysis. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press LLC.

Buchner, H., Laner, D., Rechberger, H., Fellner, J., 2015. Dynamic Material Flow Modeling: An Effort to Calibrate and Validate Aluminum Stocks and Flows in Austria. Environmental Science & Technology 49, 5546-5554.

CEPI, 2016. Key Statistics 2015 - European pulp & paper industry. Confederation of European paper industries, Brussels, p. 32.

Eurofer, 2017. European Steel in Figures Covering 2012- 2016. European Steel Association, Brussels, p. 20.

European Aluminium Association, 2016. Aluminium Statistics Europe - 2015. European Aluminium Association, Brussels.

Ghenda, T., Lüngen, H.B., 2013. Potential for CO2 Mitigation of the European Steel Industry, IEAGHG/IETS Iron and Steel Industry CCS and Process Integration Workshop. IEAGHG Research Networks, Tokyo, Japan, p. 30.

Oeko-Institut e.V., 2016. Assessment of the Implementation ofDirective 2000/53/EC on End-of Life Vehicles (the ELV Directive) with Emphasis on the End-of Life Vehicles with Unknown Whereabouts. Oeko-Institut e.V., Darmstadt, p. 11.

Pivnenko, K., Laner, D., Astrup, T.F., 2016. Material Cycles and Chemicals: Dynamic Material Flow Analysis of Contaminants in Paper Recycling. Environmental Science & Technology 50, 12302-12311.

Plastics Europe, 2016. Plastics – the Facts 2015 - An analysis of European Plastics production, demand and waste data, Brussels, p. 38.

Turner, D.A., Williams, I.D., Kemp, S., 2015. Greenhouse gas emission factors for recycling of source-segregated waste materials. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 105, 186-197.

Van Eygen, E., Feketitsch, J., Laner, D., Rechberger, H., Fellner, J., 2017. Comprehensive analysis and quantification of national plastic flows: The case of Austria. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 117, Part B, 183-194.

Verlis, C., 2014. Global recycling markets: plastic waste - A story for one player – China. International Solid Waste Association ISWA, Vienna, p. 66.

Wang, T., Müller, D.B., Graedel, T.E., 2007. Forging the Anthropogenic Iron Cycle. Environmental Science & Technology 41, 5120-5129.

Warrings, R., Fellner, J., 2017. Where packaging Aluminium gets lost - gaps on the way to a circular economy, Sardinia Waste Conference. CISA, Cagliari, Sardinia, p. 12.


oct
15
feb
23
sep
30