an official journal of: published by:
an official journal of: published by:
Editor in Chief: RAFFAELLO COSSU


  • Roberto Guião de Souza Lima Jr. - Department of Environmental Engeneering, University Center of Volta Redonda, UniFOA, Brazil
  • Claudio Fernando Mahler - Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, UFRJ, Brazil

Released under CC BY-NC-ND

Copyright: © 2019 CISA Publisher


This study involves the evaluation of new composting systems for the treatment of organic solid waste that has low environmental impact. Two composting devices were developed, with four types of management. Their behavior was analyzed regarding temperature, gas production, moisture, leachate and percolated water production, compost maturation, nutrient presence, pH and water heating, which can be seen as an energy gain in addition to the economic viability of the process. The proposed composting techniques kept the waste at thermophilic temperatures for more than 20 days, with no significant emission of CH4, under aerobic conditions by passive aeration, without leachate generation. These results can be partially attributed to the suspension of the compost on pallets, the residue composition chosen in the experiments and the boundary conditions of the compartments. The energy recovery test, through water recirculation inside the compost, presented temperatures that reached 51°C after 24 h of recirculation, and were maintained throughout the process, 20 days, demonstrating its effectiveness. The proposed models are environmentally viable, minimizing gas emissions and leachate generation compared to landfill or industrial composting plants. They can be used in industrial kitchens, residential complexes, shopping malls and other small and medium solid waste generators. In addition, the solution presented in this study avoids the transportation of waste over medium and long distances, which also brings a significant reduction in energy expenses, and in the case of landfills, it avoids occupation for long periods, thus reducing emissions of gases and leachate, whose control and treatment are expensive.


Editorial History

  • Received: 06 Jun 2019
  • Revised: 13 Feb 2020
  • Accepted: 17 Feb 2020
  • Available online: 05 Mar 2020


Ahn, H.k.; Mulbry, W.; White, J.w.; Kondrad, S.l. Pile mixing increases greenhouse gas emissions during composting of dairy manure. Bioresource Technology, v.102, 2011, p. 2904–2909

Amlinger, F.; Peyr, S.; Cuhls, C. Green house gas emissions from composting and mechanical biological treatment. Waste Management e Research, v.26, 2008, p. 47-60

Andersen, J. K.; Boldrin, A.; Christensen, T. H.; Scheutz, C. Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting of organic household waste. Waste Management, v. 30, n,12, 2010a, p.2475–2482

Andersen, J. K.; Boldrin, A.; Christensen, T. H.; Scheutz, C. Quantification of greenhouse gas emission from windrow composting of garden waste. Journal of Environmental Quality, v.39, 2010b, p.713-724

Andersen, J. K.; Boldrin, A.; Christensen, T. H.; SCHEUTZ, C. Mass balance and life cycle inventory of home composting of organic waste. Waste Management, v.31, n. 9-10, 2011, p.1934-1943

Andersen, J. K.; Boldrin, A.; Christensen, T. H.; Scheutz, C. Home composting as an alternative treatment option for organic household waste in Denmark: An environmental assessment using life cycle assessment-modelling. Waste Management, v.32, n.1, 2012, p.31-40

Andrade, J. C.; Abreu, M.; Falcão, A. A. Protocols of Chemical Analysis. Chemical analysis of solid waste for monitoring and agro-environmental studies. Agronomic Institute, Campinas, 2006, p.121-158. (in Portuguese)

Brasil. Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply of Agricultural Defense Secretariat, n.d. Normative Instruction No. 25 of 23 July 2009. Available at:. Access: 28 November 2014. (in Portuguese)

CONAMA. Ministry of Environment, 2005. CONAMA No 357 of 17 March 2005. Available at: . Accessed on: 22 Mar. 2014. (in Portuguese)

Durand, A. Bioreactor designs for solid state fermentation. Biochemical Engineering Journal, v.13, n. 2-3, 2003, p.113-125

EM® (2012). Efficient Microorganism. Available at: . Accessed on 10 May 2012

Ermolaev, E.; Sundberg, C.; Pell, M.; Håkan, J. Greenhouse gas emissions from home composting in practice. Bioresource Technology, v.151, 2014, p.174-182

Giró F. Qualitat proposed legislation to composted per municipals to Residus Catalunya (in Catalan). Residus Board. Generalit at de Catalunya; 1994. (in Spain)

IBGE - Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. (2010) Census 2010 Rio de Janeiro: IBGE. Available at: . Access: 10 April 2013

Inácio, C. T .; Bettio, D. B .; Miller, P. R. mitigation potential of methane emissions through composting projects on a small scale. In: Brazilian Congress of Organic Waste. Anais ... Victory: SBCS, 2009a. CD ROM. (in Portuguese)

Inácio, C. T.; Procópio, A. S.; Teixeira, C.; Miller, P. R. O2 dynamics, CO2 and CH4 in static windrow composting during the thermophilic phase. In: Brazilian Congress of Organic Waste. Anais ... Victory: SBCS, 2009b. CD ROM. (in Portuguese)

Inácio, C. T.; Miller, P. R. Composting, science and practice for organic waste management. 1st ed. Rio de Janeiro: Embrapa Solos, 2009. 156p. (in Portuguese)

Jackel, U.; Thummes, K.; Kampfer, P. Thermophilic methane production and oxidation in compost. FEMS Microbiol. Ecolgy, v.52, n. 2, 2005, p.175-184

Jiang, T.; Schuchardt, F.; Li, G.; Guo, R.; Zhao, Y. Effect of C/N rate and moisture conten on ammonia and greenhouse gas emission during the compost. Journal of Environmental Sciences, v.23, n. 10 , 2011, p.1754-1760

Jordão, E. P.; Pessoa, C. A. Domestic sewage treatment. 4 ed. Rio de Janeiro: Ed. ABES, 2005. 932p. (in Portuguese)

Kiehl, E. J. Composting Manual: Maturation and Compost Quality. 4th ed. Piracicaba: Ed. Edmar José Kiehl, 1998. 171p. (in Portuguese)

Maciel, F. J., Jucá, J. F. T. Evaluation of landfill gas production and emissions in a MSW large-scale Experimental Cell in Brazil. Waste Management v.31, p. 966-977, 2011

Mahler, C.f. Urban waste. 1 ed. Rio de Janeiro: Ed. Revan, 2012. 189 p. (in Portuguese)

Martínez-Blanco, J.; Colón, J.; Gabarrell, X.; Font, X.; Sánchez, A.; Artola, A.; Rieradevall, J. The use of life cycle assessment for the comparison of biowaste composting at home and full scale. Waste Management, v.30, n. 6 , 2010, p.983-994

Miller, F. C. Composting as a process base on the control of ecologically selective factors. In: METTING, F. B., Soil microbial ecology: application in agricultural and environmental management. New York, NY, Marcel Dekker Inc., p. 515 – 541, 1993

Münnich, K.; Mahler, C. F.; Fricke, K. Pilot Project of mechanical-biological treatment of waste in Brazil. Waste Management (Elmsford), v.26, n. 2 , 2006, p.150-157

Native Power (2013). Available in: . Acess in: 12 mar. 2013

Pain, J. (1972) Another kind of garden. Available in: . Acesso em: 24 fev. 2014

Pires, A.; Martinho, G.; Ni-Bin, C. Solid state manegement in European countries. A review of systems analysis techniques. Journal of Environmental Manegement, v.92, n. 4, 2011, p.1033-1050

Rose, J. L.; Mahler, C.f.; Izzo, R. L. S. Comparison of the methane oxidation rate in four media. Revista Brasileira de Ciência do Solo (Printed), v. 36, 2012, p. 803-812

Randle, J; Flegg, M. Oxygen measurements in a Mushroom Compost Stack. Scientia horticulae. v.8, n. 4, 1978, p. 315-323

Sokal, R. R.; Rohlf, F. J. Biometry: The principles and practice of statistics in biological research. 4.ed. W. H. Freeman and Co, 2012. 937p

Standard Methods. Standard Methods for the examination of water and wastewater, Method D 5220 Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), 1997

Teixeira, L.b.; Germano, V.l.c; Oliveira, R.f. De; Furlan Junior, J. Composting process from urban organic waste into static windrow with natural ventilation. Belém: Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, 2004. 7p. (Embrapa Amazônia Oriental. Circular Técnica, 33). (in Portuguese)

USEPA - United States Environmental Protection Agency. Environmental regulation and technology control of pathogens and vector attraction in sewage sludge. Under 40 CRF. Part 503. EPA-625/R-92/013, 1992. Available in: < >. Acesso em: 19 mai. 2013

USEPA- United States Environmental Protection Agency. Landfill gas emissions model (LandGEM) version 3.02 user’s guide. Washington: Office of Research and Development, EPA-600/R-05/047, 2005. 48p

Viana, T.a.p. Analysis of the methane emission estimates for landfills in CDM projects in Brazil. Dissertation (MSc) - 2011 State University of Rio de Janeiro, Faculty of Engineering. (in Portuguese)

Zuokaite, E.; Zigmontiene, A. Application of a natural cover during sewage sludge composting to reduce gaseous emissions. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, v.22, n.2, 2013, p.621-626