an official journal of: published by:
an official journal of: published by:
Editor in Chief: RAFFAELLO COSSU


  • Jamie Mae Chee Tan - Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu University, Japan
  • Amirhomayoun Saffarzadeh - Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Japan
  • Takayuki Shimaoka - Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu University, Japan

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Copyright: © 2023 CISA Publisher


Municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash (FA) contains toxic substances and hence, direct landfilling of MSWI FA is prohibited in Japan Complying with Japan's stringent Waste Disposal and Public Cleansing Law, which demands adherence to landfill disposal and effluent standards, is crucial for ensuring environmental safety. To address the issue, various treatment methods including treatment by chemical, phosphoric acid, and melting and solidification can be used to stabilize the MSWI FA through the immobilization of heavy metals. However, the long-term stability of these treatment methods has not been thoroughly investigated. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the long-term effectiveness of these three treatment methods for MSWI FA respectively, both independently and in conjunction with compost. This study involves the monitoring of changes in the concentration of heavy metals, including lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), total-chromium (T-Cr), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn), that have been leached over a period of 27 years. This study aims to conduct a detailed analysis of the impact of various treatment methods on the concentration levels of these individual heavy metals. Notably, the results suggest that independently, phosphoric acid treatment outperforms chelate treatment in the long run, but when combined with compost, both treatments exhibit enhanced efficacy, suggesting a promising approach for immobilizing heavy metals.


Editorial History

  • Received: 15 Sep 2023
  • Revised: 02 Feb 2024
  • Accepted: 28 Feb 2024
  • Available online: 20 Mar 2024


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