an official journal of: published by:
an official journal of: published by:
Editor in Chief: RAFFAELLO COSSU


Challenges and perspectives of direct test methods for assessing waste Hazardous Properties (HP)

  • Managing editor: Alberto Pivato - University of Padova, Italy

Released under CC BY-NC-ND

Copyright: © 2021 CISA Publisher


Bishop, I., Hennebert, P., 2021. Hazardous waste classification: Review of worst case to less worst case metal species with a worked example for a contaminated soil. Detritus 14, 4–24.
DOI 10.31025/2611-4135/2021.14065

CEN, 2005. EN ISO 14735 - Preparation of waste samples for ecotoxicity tests

CEN, 2004. EN 12457-2 - Leaching - Compliance test for leaching of granular waste materials and sludges. Part 2: One stage batch test at a liquid to solid ratio of 10 l/kg for materials with particles size below 4 mm (with or without size reduction)

ECHA, 2017. Guidance on the Application of the CLP Criteria. Guidance to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 on classification, labelling and packaging (CLP) of substances and mixtures. Version 5.0. European Chemicals Agency. July 2017.
DOI 10.2823/124801

European Commission, 2020. Circular economy action plan. Eur. Comm. 28.
DOI 10.2775/855540

European Commission, 2018. Commission notice on technical guidance on the classification of waste. URL

European Commission, 2014. Commission Regulation No 1357/2014 of 18 December 2014 replacing Annex III to Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council on waste and repe­aling certain Directives. URL

European Commission, 2000. Commision Decision of 3 May 2000 replacing Decision 94/3/EC establishing a list of wastes pursuant to Article 1(a) of Council Directive 75/442/EEC on waste and Council Decision 94/904/EC establishing a list of hazardous waste pursuant to Article 1(4) of C

European Commission, Joint Research Centre, 2019. EURL ECVAM dataset on alternative methods to animal experimentation (DB-ALM). European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC) [Dataset] [WWW Document]. URL

European Council, 2017. Council Regulation No 2017/997 of 8 June 2017 amending Annex III to Directive 2008/98/EC of the EuropeanParliament and of the Council as regards the hazardous propertyHP 14 ‘Ecotoxic’. URL

European Council, 2008. Council Regulation No 440/2008 of 30 May 2008 laying down test methods pursuant to Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council on the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH)

European Parliament and European Council, 2019. Regulation (EU) 2019/1021 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 on persistent organic pollutants. URL

Hareng, L., Pellizzer, C., Bremer, S., Schwarz, M., Hartung, T., 2005. The Integrated Project ReProTect: A novel approach in reproductive toxicity hazard assessment. Reprod. Toxicol. 20, 441–452.
DOI 10.1016/j.reprotox.2005.04.003

Hennebert P. 2019. Hazard classification of waste: review of available practical methods and tools. Detritus. 07, 1-16.
DOI 10.31025/2611-4135/2019.13846

Hennebert, P., 2018. Proposal of concentration limits for determining the hazard property HP 14 for waste using ecotoxicological tests. Waste Manag. 74, 74–85.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2017.11.048

Hennebert, P., van der Sloot, H.A., Rebischung, F., Weltens, R., Geerts, L., Hjelmar, O., 2014. Hazard property classification of waste according to the recent propositions of the EC using different methods. Waste Manag. 34, 1739–1751.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2014.05.021

Hennebert P, Papin A, Padox J-M, Hasebrouck B. 2013. The evaluation of an analytical protocol for the determination of substances in waste for hazard classification. Waste Management 33 (2013) 1577–1588.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2013.03.013

Hennebert P, Beggio G. 2021. Sampling and sub-sampling of granular waste: Part 1 - Size of a representative sample in terms of number of particles and application to waste containing rare particles in concentration. Submitted to Detritus

ISO, 2020. EN ISO 17512-1 - Soil quality. Avoidance test for determining the quality of soils and effects of chemicals on behaviour. Test with earthworms (Eisenia fetida and Eisenia andrei)

ISO, 2019. ISO 5725-2 Accuracy (trueness and precision) of measurement methods and results - Part 2: Basic method for the determination of repeatability and reproducibility of a standard measurement method

ISO, 2018. EN ISO 18187 - Contact test for solid samples using the dehydrogenase activity of Arthrobacter globiformis

ISO, 2013. EN ISO 11269-2 - Determination of the effects of pollutants on soil flora Part 2 : Effects of contaminated soil on the emergence and early growth of higher

ISO, 2012a. EN ISO 8692 - Water quality - Fresh water algal growth inhibition test with unicellular green algae

ISO, 2012b. EN ISO 6341 - Water quality - Determination of the inhibition of the mobility of Daphnia magna Straus ( Cladocera , Crustacea ) - Acute toxicity test

ISO, 2008. EN ISO 11348-3 - Water quality - Determination of the inhibitory effect of water samples on the light emission of Vibrio fischeri (Luminescent bacteria test) - Part 3: Method using freeze-dried bacteria

ISPRA, 2017. Rassegna dei Confronti interlaboratorio in ambito ecotossicologico: l’esperienza di ISPRA (2003-2016).

ISPRA. 2018. Approccio metodologico per la valutazione della caratteristica di pericolo HP14 - Ecotossico. (in Italian). Available at:

Moser, H., Römbke, J., 2009. Ecotoxicological Characterization of Waste. Results and Experiences of an International Ring Test. Springer.
DOI 10.1007/978-0-387-88959-7

OECD, 2020a. Test No. 437: Bovine Corneal Opacity And Permeability Test Method For Identifying i) Chemicals inducing Serous Eye Damage And ii) Chemicals Not Requiring Classification For Eye Irritation Or Serious Eye Damage

OECD, 2020b. Test No. 491: Short Time Exposure In Vitro Test Method for Identifying i) Chemicals Inducing Serious Eye Damage and ii) Chemicals Not Requiring Classification for Eye Irritation or Serious Eye Damage

OECD, 2019a. Global Material Resources Outlook to 2060: Economic Drivers and Environmental Consequences, OECD Publishing. Paris.
DOI 10.1787/9789264307452-en

OECD, 2019b. Test No. 492: Reconstructed human Cornea-like Epithelium (RhCE) test method for identifying chemicals not requiring classification and labelling for eye irritation or serious eye damage

OECD, 2018: Test No. 438: Isolated Chicken Eye Test Method for Identifying Ocular Corrosives and Severe Irritants. (2018).
DOI 10.1787/9789264076310-en

OECD, 2017. Test No. 460: Fluorescein Leakage (FL) Test Method for Identifying Ocular Corrosives and Severe Irritants

OECD, 2015. Test No. 431: In vitro skin corrosion: reconstructed human epidermis (RHE) test method.
DOI 10.1787/9789264242753-en

OECD, 2013a. Test No. 122: Determination of pH, Acidity and Alkalinity. OECD Guid. Test. Chem. 1–6

OECD, 2013b. Test No. 439: In Vitro Skin Irritation - Reconstructed Human Epidermis Test Method.
DOI 10.1787/9789264203884-en

OECD, 2013c. Test No. 430: In Vitro Skin Corrosion: Transcutaneous Electrical Resistance Test Method (TER) 1–15.
DOI 10.1787/9789264203808-en

OECD, 2013d. Test No. 210: Fish, Early-Life Stage Toxicity Test. Test No. 210 Fish, Early-Life Stage Toxic. Test 1–24.
DOI 10.1787/9789264070103-en

OECD, 2012. Test No. 211: Daphnia magna Reproduction Test.
DOI 10.1787/9789264070127-en

OECD, 2011. Test No. 201: Freshwater Alga and Cyanobacteria, Growth Inhibition Test. OECD Guidel. Test. Chem. Sect. 2

OECD, 2006. Test No. 221: Lemna sp. Growth Inhibition Test

OECD, 2004. Test No. 202: Daphnia sp. Acute Immobilisation Test. OECD Guidel. Test. Chem. Sect. 2.
DOI 10.1787/9789264069947-en

OECD, 2001. OECD Series on testing and assessment - Document nr. 29 - Guidance Document on Transformation/Dissolution of Metals and Metal Compounds in Aqueous Media.
DOI 10.1787/9789264078451-en

OECD, 1992. Test No. 203: Fish, Acute Toxicity Test. OECD Guidel. Test. Chem. Sect. 2.

Pandard, P., Römbke, J., 2013. Proposal for a “Harmonized” strategy for the assessment of the HP 14 property. Integr. Environ. Assess. Manag. 9, 665–672.
DOI 10.1002/ieam.1447

Pivato, A., Beggio, G., Hennebert, P., Bonato, T., Favarin, M., Raga, R., 2020. Proposal of a testing program for the HP 14 (Ecotoxic) classification of automotive shredder residues (ASR) by a battery of ecotoxicological bioassays. Detritus.
DOI 10.31025/2611-4135/2020.14032

SNPA, 2020. Linee guida sulla classificazione dei rifiuti. Delibera del Consiglio SNPA. Seduta del 27.11.19. Doc. n. 61/19

Young J R, How M J, Walker A P and Worth W M. 1988. Classification as corrosive or irritant to skin of preparations containing acidic or alkaline substances, without testing on animals. Toxic. In Vitro, Vol 2, No 1, pp. 19-26

Young J.R., How M.J. 1994. Product classification as corrosive or irritant by measuring pH and acid/alkali reserve. B. In Vitro Approaches, I. Physico-chemical Methods, Method BI-1. In Alternative Methods in Toxicology vol. 10 - In Vitro Skin Toxicology: Irritation, Phototoxicity, Sensitization, eds. A.Rougier, A.M. Goldberg and H.I Maibach, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. pp. 23-27