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Editor in Chief: RAFFAELLO COSSU

POTENTIALS AND COSTS OF VARIOUS RENEWABLE GASES: A CASE STUDY FOR THE AUSTRIAN ENERGY SYSTEM BY 2050

  • Daniel Cenk Rosenfeld - Energieinstitut an der Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, Austria
  • Johannes Lindorfer - Energieinstitut an der Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, Austria
  • Hans Böhm - Energieinstitut an der Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, Austria
  • Andreas Zauner - Energieinstitut an der Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, Austria
  • Karin Fazeni-Fraisl - Energieinstitut an der Johannes Kepler Universität Linz, Austria

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Abstract

This analysis estimates the technically available potentials of renewable gases from anaerobic conversion and biomass gasification of organic waste materials, as well as power-to-gas (H2 and synthetic natural gas based on renewable electricity) for Austria, as well as their approximate energy production costs. Furthermore, it outlines a theoretical expansion scenario for plant erection aimed at fully using all technical potentials by 2050. The overall result, illustrated as a theoretical merit order, is a ranking of technologies and resources by their potential and cost, starting with the least expensive and ending with the most expensive. The findings point to a renewable methane potential of about 58 TWh per year by 2050. The highest potential originates from biomass gasification (~49 TWh per year), while anaerobic digestion (~6 TWh per year) and the power-to-gas of green CO2 from biogas upgrading (~3 TWh per year) demonstrate a much lower technical potential. To fully use these potentials, 870 biomass gasification plants, 259 anaerobic digesters, and 163 power-to-gas plants to be built by 2050 in the full expansion scenario. From the cost perspective, all technologies are expected to experience decreasing specific energy costs in the expansion scenario. This cost decrease is not significant for biomass gasification, at only about 0.1 €-cent/kWh, resulting in a cost range between 10.7 and 9.0 €-cent/kWh depending on the year and fuel. However, for anaerobic digestion, the cost decrease is significant, with a reduction from 7.9 to 5.6 €-cent/kWh. It is even more significant for power-to-gas, with a reduction from 10.8 to 5.1 €-cent/kWh between 2030 and 2050.

Keywords


Editorial History

  • Received: 24 Mar 2021
  • Revised: 03 Aug 2021
  • Accepted: 23 Aug 2021
  • Available online: 30 Sep 2021

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