an official journal of: published by:
an official journal of: published by:
Editor in Chief: RAFFAELLO COSSU


  • Ababaikere Abudureheman - School of Science and Technology, Geology Division, University of Camerino, Italy
  • Paola Stabile - School of Science and Technology, Geology Division, University of Camerino, Italy
  • Michael Robert Carroll - School of Science and Technology, Geology Division, University of Camerino, Italy
  • Carlo Santulli - School of Science and Technology, Geology Division, University of Camerino, Italy
  • Eleonora Paris - School of Science and Technology, Geology Division, University of Camerino, Italy

Released under CC BY-NC-ND

Copyright: © 2021 CISA Publisher


Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) originating from the rubble produced by the 2016 seismic events in the Marche Region (Central Italy) has been studied, focusing on its mineralogical and chemical characteristics, to investigate its recycling potentials as a component for eco-sustainable building material or in the glass industry. The aim was to obtain a full characterization of the behaviour of this material at high T in order to determine the most advantageous conditions for vitrification, considered as an effective process for volume reduction as well as for immobilization of potentially hazardous elements. Vitrification experiments, carried out with thermal treatments as function of temperature/duration/particle size and aimed at amorphization, were carried out under atmospheric conditions, at different temperatures (1000-1250°C) and durations (2-8 hours). The study demonstrated that mineralogical composition remains homogeneous for grainsize <4 mm, thus suggesting that no sieving is necessary for recycling of the fine fractions, which are the most difficult to treat. Vitrification, although not achieved for the CDW sample up to 1250°C, due to high-Ca and low-Si contents, demonstrated that this CDW can produce an interesting refractory material and a porous/insulating material. However, experiments showed that full vitrification can be easily achieved by mixing urban waste glass and CDW, suggesting applications in the glass industry. Based on the chemical and mineralogical features of the products, other significant upgrading alternatives of recycling the CDW in different fields of applications are highlighted.


Editorial History

  • Received: 02 Mar 2021
  • Revised: 07 May 2021
  • Accepted: 26 May 2021
  • Available online: 30 Jun 2021


Ansaloni, F., Paris, E., Grandinetti, V., 2017. The Case of Eco-Tiles, Renewable Matter 17, 52-55

Barbieri, L., Bonamartini, A., Lancellotti, I., 2000. Alkaline and alkaline-earth silicate glasses and glass-ceramics from municipal and industrial wastes. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 20, 2477–2483

Bianchini, E., Marrocchino, R., Tassinari, C. Vaccaro, 2005. Recycling of construction and demolition waste materials: a chemical–mineralogical appraisal. Waste Manage. 25 (2), 149-159

Colombo, P., Brusatin, G., Bernardo, E., Scarinci, G., 2003. Inertization and reuse of waste materials by vitrification and fabrication of glass- based products. Curr. Opin. Solid St. Mater. Sci., 7, 225-239

DG ENV, 2011. Service contract on management of construction and demolition waste – SR1. European Commission Directorate-General for Environment, Brussels, Belgium.

European Commission, 2008. Directive 2008/98/EC on waste and repealing certain directives. Retrieved from

European Commission, 2016a. Waste - construction and demolition waste (CDW). (Accessed 1 March 2021)

European Commission, 2016b. Studies - resource efficient use of mixed wastes. (Accessed 1 March 2021)

European Commission, 2019. On the implementation of the circular economy action plan. Retrieved from

Favaretto, P., Hidalgo, G.E.N., Sampaio, C.H., Silva, R.D.A., Lermen, R.T., 2017. Characterization and Use of Construction and Demolition Waste from South of Brazil in the Production of Foamed Concrete Blocks. Appl. Sci., 7, 1090.
DOI 10.3390/app7101090

Galoisy, L., 2006. Structure-Property Relationships in Industrial and Natural Glasses, in Elements Vol. 2, n.5., 292-297

González-García, F., Romero-Acosta, V., García-Ramos, G., González-Rodríguez, M., 1990, Firing transformations of mixtures of clays containing illite, kaolinite and calcium carbonate used by ornamental tile industries, Appl. Clay Sci. 5 (4), 361-375

Haugsten, K.E., Gustavson B., 2000. Environmental properties of vitrified fly ash from hazardous and municipal waste incineration. Waste Manage. 20, 167-176

Heaney, P.J. ,1994. Structure and chemistry of the low-pressure silica polymorphs. In “ Silica - Physical behavior, geochemistry and materials applications” by P.J. Heaney, C.T. Prewitt and G.V. Gibbs (Editors). Reviews in Mineralogy, Vol.29 pp 1-32 Mineralogical Society of America, ISBN 0-939950-35-9

Hubbard, C.R. and Snyder, R.L. 1988. RIR - Measurement and Use in Quantitative XRD. Powder Diffraction , 3 , 2 , 74 - 77
DOI 10.1017/S0885715600013257

Huckenholz, H.G. and Ott, W.D., 1978. Synthesis, stability, and aluminum-iron substitution in gehlenite-ferrigehlenite solid solutions, Neu. Jb. Mineral. 12, 521-536

Jung, C.H., Matsuto, T., Tanaka, N., 2005. Behavior of metals in ash melting and gasification-melting of municipal solid waste (MSW). Waste Manage. 25, 301–310

Kavouras, P., Kaimakamis, G., Ioannidis, T.A., Kehagias, T., Komninou, P., Kokkou, S., Pavlidou, E., Antonopoulos, I., Sofoniou, M., Zouboulis, A., Hadjiantoniou, C.P., Nouet, G., Prakouras, A., Karakostas, T., 2003. Vitrification of lead-rich solid ashes from incineration of hazardous industrial wastes. Waste Manage. 23, 361–371

Kida, A., Noma, Y., Imada, T., 1996. Chemical speciation and leaching properties of elements in municipal incinerator ashes. Waste Manage. 16, 527–536

Kosson, D.S., Van der Sloot, H.A., Sanchez, F., 2002. An intergrated framework for evaluating leaching in waste management and utilization of secondary materials. Environ. Eng. Sci. 19, 159–204

Li, M., Xiang, J., Hu, S., Sun, L-S., Su, S., Li, P.-S., Sun, X.-X., 2004. Characterization of solid residues from municipal solid waste incinerator. Fuel 83 (10), 1397-1405.
DOI 10.1016/j.fuel.2004.01.005

López, F.A., Martín, M.I., García-Díaz, I., Rodríguez, O., Alguacil, F.J., Romero, M., 2012, Recycling of glass fibers from fiberglass polyester waste composite for the manufacture of glass-ceramic materials, J. Envir. Protect., 3, 740-7

Manning, D.A.C., 1995. Cement and Plasters Industrial Minerals. Editor, Chapman & Hall, London, pp. 141–155

Marie, I., Quiasrawi, H., 2012. Closed-loop recycling of recycled concrete aggregates, J. Clean. Prod. 37, 243–248.
DOI 10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.07.020

Maruoka, T., Koeberl, C., 2003. Acid-neutralizing scenario after the Cretaceos/Tertiary impact. Geology, 31 (6), 489-492

Neuville, D.R., Cormier, L., Caurant, D., Montagne, L., 2017. From Glass to crystal: Nucleation, growth and phase separation, from research to applications. EDP SCIENCES ISBN: 978-2-7598-1783-2

Oliveira, T.C.F., Dezen, B.G.S., Possan, E., 2020, Use of concrete fine fraction waste as a replacement of Portland cement, J. Clean. Product. 273, 123-6

Öveçoğlu, M.L., 1998. Microstructural characterisation and physical properties of a slag-based glass-ceramic crystallized at 950 and 1 100°C. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc., 18, 161-16

Pacheco-Torgal, F., Jalali, S., 2011. Eco-efficient Construction and Building Materials, Springer Verlag, London

Pacheco-Torgal, F., Tam, V.W. Y., Labrincha, J.A., Ding, Y., De Brito, J., 2013. Handbook of recycled concrete and demolition waste. Woodhead Publishing, U.S.A

Panizza, M., Natali, M., Garbin, E., Tamburini, S., Secco, M., Assessment of geopolymers with Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) aggregates as a building material, Constr. Build. Mater. 181, 119-33

Santos, A., Ajbary, M., Morales-Flores, V., Kherbeche, A., Pinero, M., Esquivias, L. 2009 Larnite powders and larnite/silica aerogel composites as effective agent for CO2 sequestration by carbonation. J. Hazard. Mater. 168, 1397-1403

Scarinci, G., Brusatin, G., Barbieri, L., Corradi, A., Lancellotti, I., Colombo, P., Hreglich, S., Dall'Igna, R., 2000, Vitrification of industrial and natural wastes with production of glass fibres, J.Eur. Ceram. Soc., 20, 2485-90

Schaffer, H.A., Langfeld, R., Benz-Zauner, M., 2010. Glastechnik. Glass: The Material, Deutsches Museum Verlag. ISBN 978-3-940396-35-8

Schollbach, K., Alam, Q., Caprai, V., Florea, M., Van der Laan, S., van Hoek, C., Brouwers, H.J.H., 2016. Combined chracterization of the MSWI bottom ash. Proceedings Of The Thirty-Eighth International Conference On Cement Microscopy (Lyon, France)

Shettar, M., Suhas Kowshik, C.S., Manjunath, M., Hiremath, P., 2020. Experimental investigation on mechanical and wear properties of nanoclay–epoxy composites, J. Mater. Res. Technol. 9, 9108-16

Stabile, P., Bello, M., Petrelli, M., Paris, E., Carroll, M. 2019. Vitrification treatment of Municipal Solid Waste Bottom Ash. Waste Manage. 95, 250-258.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2019.06.021

Stabile, P., Radica, F., Ranza, L., Carroll, M.R., Santulli, C., Paris, E., 2021. Dimensional, Mechanical and LCA Characterization of Terrazzo Tiles along with Glass and Construction, and Demolition Waste (CDW). Recent Prog. Mater. 3(1),
DOI 10.21926/rpm.2101xxx

Staunton, J., Williams, C.D., Mc Donnell, R.J., Fleming, G.T.A., Henry, T., Gormally, M.J., 2014. Challenges in assessing ecological impacts of construction and demolition waste on wetlands: a case study, Appl. Ecol. Envir. Res. 12, 457-479

Trindade, M., Dias, M., Coroado, J., Rocha, F., 2009. Mineralogical transformations of calcareous rich clays with firing: A comparative study between calcite and dolomite rich clays from Algarve, Portugal. Appl. Clay Sci. 42. 345-355. 10.1016/j.clay.2008.02.008

Volpintesta F., 2019. Caratterizzazione chimico-petrografica di rifiuti da demolizione edilizia per la valorizzazione e il riciclaggio. Master Thesis, University of Pisa. pp.1-42

Whittaker, M.J., Grigoriadis, K., Soutsos, M., Sha, W., Klinge, A., Paganoni, S., Casado, M., Brander, L., Mousavi, M., Scullin, M., Correia, R., Zerbi, T., Staiano, G., Merli, I., Ingrosso, I., Attanasio, A., Largo, A., 2019. Novel construction and demolition waste (CDW) treatment and uses to maximize reuse and recycling, Adv. Build. Energy Res. 15(2), 253-269.
DOI 10.1080/17512549.2019.1702586

Yılmaz, T., Ercikdi, B., Deveci, H., 2018, Utilisation of construction and demolition waste as cemented paste backfill material for underground mine openings, J. Environ. Manage. 222, 250-259