an official journal of: published by:
an official journal of: published by:
Editor in Chief: RAFFAELLO COSSU


  • Xavier Pierron - Management Group, Edinburgh Napier University, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  • Ian Williams - International Centre for Environmental Science, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
  • Peter Shaw - International Centre for Environmental Science, Faculty of Engineering and the Environment, University of Southampton, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

Released under CC BY-NC-ND

Copyright: © 2020 CISA Publisher


From an urban mining perspective stockpiles of Waste of Electronic and Electrical Equipment (WEEE) by individuals represent anthropogenic stocks that could be exploited for precious and critical resources. The current challenge resides in minimising these stocks generation, as well as accessing the resources they represent. Behavioural models such as the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) have been used in waste and resources management studies to understand WEEE end-of-use intentions and behaviours. But the results have been uneven and the very presence of these anthropogenic stocks is the acknowledgement that these models need to be adapted. Based on a review from the waste and resources management literature we found that TPB models incorporating emotions tended to have higher variance explained for intention, but the intention-behaviour gap remained strong. To explain this gap for small WEEE we propose using variables associating emotions with decision-making biases and tendencies that affect individual behaviours. This study is a theoretical elaboration supporting future empirical testing. A TPB extended with behavioural economics could better model small WEEE end-of-use decisions. Improved understanding of small WEEE urban mines generation could, in turn, inform policy and incentives design to transform these anthropogenic stocks into flows of resources within a circular economy.


Editorial History

  • Received: 14 Jul 2020
  • Revised: 29 Jan 2021
  • Accepted: 04 Feb 2021
  • Available online: 31 Mar 2021


Ajzen, I. (2011). The theory of planned behaviour: reactions and reflections. Psychology & health 26, 1113–27.
DOI 10.1080/08870446.2011.613995

Ajzen, I. (1985). ‘From Intentions to Actions: A Theory of Planned Behavior’, in: Kuhl, P.D.J., Beckmann, D.J. (Eds.), Action Control, SSSP Springer Series in Social Psychology (pp. 11–39). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
DOI 10.1007/978-3-642-69746-3_2

Ajzen, I., (2015) The theory of planned behaviour is alive and well, and not ready to retire: a commentary on Sniehotta, Presseau, and Araújo-Soares, Health Psychology Review, 9:2, 131-137,
DOI 10.1080/17437199.2014.883474

Armitage, C.J., Conner, M. (2001). Efficacy of the Theory of Planned Behaviour: a meta-analytic review. The British journal of social psychology / the British Psychological Society 40, 471–99

Baldé, C.P., Forti, V., Gray, V., Kuehr, R., Stegmann, P. (2017). Quantities, Flows, and Resources (No. 3), The Global E-waste Monitor. United Nations University, Bonn/Geneva/Vienna

Balleine, B.W., Dezfouli, A., Ito, M., Doya, K. (2015). Hierarchical control of goal-directed action in the cortical–basal ganglia network. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences, Neuroeconomics 5, 1–7.
DOI 10.1016/j.cobeha.2015.06.001

Bamberg, S., Hunecke, M., Blöbaum, A. (2007). Social context, personal norms and the use of public transportation: Two field studies. Journal of Environmental Psychology 27, 190–203.
DOI 10.1016/j.jenvp.2007.04.001

Barata, R., Castro, P. (2013). “I feel recycling matters… sometimes”: The negative influence of ambivalence on waste separation among teenagers. The Social Science Journal 50, 313–320.
DOI 10.1016/j.soscij.2013.05.007

Barba-Gutiérrez, Y., Adenso-Díaz, B., Hopp, M. (2008). An analysis of some environmental consequences of European electrical and electronic waste regulation. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 52, 481–495.
DOI 10.1016/j.resconrec.2007.06.002

Barr, S. (2007). Factors Influencing Environmental Attitudes and Behaviors A U.K. Case Study of Household Waste Management. Environment and Behavior 39, 435–473.
DOI 10.1177/0013916505283421

Barr, S. (2006). Environmental Action in the Home: Investigating the “Value-Action” Gap. Geography 91, 43–54

Barr, S., Gilg, A.W. (2005). Conceptualising and analysing household attitudes and actions to a growing environmental problem: Development and application of a framework to guide local waste policy. Applied Geography 25, 226–247.
DOI 10.1016/j.apgeog.2005.03.007

Barr, S., Gilg, A.W., Ford, N.J. (2001). A conceptual framework for understanding and analysing attitudes towards household-waste management. Environment and Planning A 33, 2025–2048.
DOI 10.1068/a33225

Barr, S., Guilbert, S., Metcalfe, A., Riley, M., Robinson, G.M., Tudor, T.L. (2013). Beyond recycling: An integrated approach for understanding municipal waste management. Applied Geography 39, 67–77.
DOI 10.1016/j.apgeog.2012.11.006

Baxter, J., Gram-Hanssen, I. (2016). Environmental message framing: Enhancing consumer recycling of mobile phones. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 109, 96–101.
DOI 10.1016/j.resconrec.2016.02.012

Binnemans, K., Jones, P.T., Blanpain, B., Van Gerven, T., Yang, Y., Walton, A., Buchert, M. (2013). Recycling of rare earths: a critical review. Journal of Cleaner Production 51, 1–22.
DOI 10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.12.037

BIT (2010). About us [WWW Document]. URL (accessed 10.31.19)

Bouton, M.E. (2014). Why behavior change is difficult to sustain. Preventive Medicine, Behavior Change, Health, and Health Disparities 68, 29–36.
DOI 10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.06.010

Carrus, G., Passafaro, P., Bonnes, M. (2008). Emotions, habits and rational choices in ecological behaviours: The case of recycling and use of public transportation. Journal of Environmental Psychology 28, 51–62.
DOI 10.1016/j.jenvp.2007.09.003

Chan, L., Bishop, B. (2013). A moral basis for recycling: Extending the theory of planned behaviour. Journal of Environmental Psychology 36, 96–102.
DOI 10.1016/j.jenvp.2013.07.010

COM614. (2015). Closing the loop - An EU action plan for the Circular Economy

Comply Direct (2019). Demanding 2019 WEEE Collection Targets Confirmed [WWW Document]. URL (accessed 10.28.19)

Corral-Verdugo, V. (1997). Dual ‘Realities’ of Conservation Behavior: Self-Reports vs Obervations of Reuse and Recycling Behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology 17, 135–145.
DOI 10.1006/jevp.1997.0048

Cossu, R., Williams, I.D. (2015). Urban mining: Concepts, terminology, challenges. Waste Management, Urban Mining 45, 1–3.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2015.09.040

Craig Smith, N., G. Goldstein, D., J. Johnson, E. (2013). Choice Without Awareness: Ethical and Policy Implications of Defaults. American Marketing Association 32, 159–172

Daum, K., Stoler, J., Grant, R., Daum, K., Stoler, J., Grant, R.J. (2017). Toward a More Sustainable Trajectory for E-Waste Policy: A Review of a Decade of E-Waste Research in Accra, Ghana. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14, 135.
DOI 10.3390/ijerph14020135

Davies, J., Foxall, G., Pallister, J. (2002). Beyond the Intention–Behaviour Mythology An Integrated Model of Recycling. Marketing Theory 2, 29–113.
DOI 10.1177/1470593102002001645

de Leeuw, A., Valois, P., Ajzen, I., Schmidt, P. (2015). Using the theory of planned behavior to identify key beliefs underlying pro-environmental behavior in high-school students: Implications for educational interventions. Journal of Environmental Psychology 42, 128–138.
DOI 10.1016/j.jenvp.2015.03.005

Department for Business Innovation and Skills (2013). Implementation of the WEEE Recast Directive 2012/19/EU and Changes to the UK WEEE System (Business Regulation No. BIS/11/1179), BIS. Department for Business Innovation and Skills, London

Di Maria, F., Micale, C., Sordi, A., Cirulli, G., Marionni, M. (2013). Urban Mining: Quality and quantity of recyclable and recoverable material mechanically and physically extractable from residual waste. Waste Management 33, 2594–2599.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2013.08.008

Directive 125/EC. (2009). Directive 2009/125/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 21 October 2009 establishing a framework for the setting of ecodesign requirements for energy-related products. Text with EEA relevance

Directive 2002/96/EC (2002). Directive 2002/96/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 27 January 2003 on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Joint declaration of the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission relating to Article 9, 037

Directive 2012/19/EU. (2012). Directive 2012/19/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 4 July 2012 on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). Text with EEA relevance, 197

Dommer, S.L., Swaminathan, V. (2013). Explaining the Endowment Effect through Ownership: The Role of Identity, Gender, and Self-Threat. Journal of Consumer Research 39, 1034–1050

Echegaray, F., & Hansstein, F. V. (2017). Assessing the intention-behavior gap in electronic waste recycling: the case of Brazil. Journal of Cleaner Production, 142, 180–190.
DOI 10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.05.064

Eliseeva, S.V., Bünzli, J.-C.G. (2011). Rare earths: jewels for functional materials of the future. New Journal of Chemistry 35, 1165

Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2013). Economic and business rationale for an accelerated transition (Online No. 1), Towards the Circular Economy. Ellen MacArthur Foundation, Cowes, Isle of Wight

EU Directive 851, 2018. Directive (EU) 2018 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 30 May 2018 amending Directive 2008/98/EC on waste

European Commission, 2017a. Critical Raw Materials List for the EU. European Commission

European Commission, 2017b. Report on the implementation of the Circular Economy Action Plan (Text No. 1). Brussels

European Commission, 2014. Report on Critical Raw Materials for the EU (No. 2), Report of the Ad hoc Working Group on defining critical raw materials. European Commission, Brussels

European Commission, 2010. Critical Raw Materials (No. 1). European Commission

European Parliament, 2019. Establishment of a framework to facilitate sustainable investment

Eurostat, 2016. Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) - Eurostat [WWW Document]. URL (accessed 9.3.16)

Fishbein, M., Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief, attitude, intention, and behavior: an introduction to theory and research. Addison-Wesley Pub. Co

Gartner. (2020). Gartner Says Global Smartphone Sales Declined 2.7% in First Quarter of 2019 [WWW Document]. Gartner. URL (accessed 11.24.20)

Geissdoerfer, M., Savaget, P., Bocken, N. M. P., & Hultink, E. J. (2017). The Circular Economy – A new sustainability paradigm? Journal of Cleaner Production, 143, 757–768.
DOI 10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.12.048

Gigerenzer, G. (2002). Bounded Rationality: The Adaptive Toolbox, New Ed edition. ed. MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass

Green Alliance (2015). A circular economy for smart devices / Opportunities in the US, UK and India, Green Alliance. Green Alliance, London

Gutiérrez, E., Adenso-Díaz, B., Lozano, S., González-Torre, P. (2010). A competing risks approach for time estimation of household WEEE disposal. Waste Management 30, 1643–1652.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2010.02.032

Huffman, A.H., Van Der Werff, B.R., Henning, J.B., Watrous-Rodriguez, K. (2014). When do recycling attitudes predict recycling? An investigation of self-reported versus observed behavior. Journal of Environmental Psychology 38, 262–270.
DOI 10.1016/j.jenvp.2014.03.006

Huisman, J. (2013). WEEE recast : from 4kg to 65 %: the compliance consequences. United Nations University 2020. ISWA: The Global E-Waste Monitor 2020. [online] Available at: [Accessed 25 November 2020]

Iyengar, S.S., Lepper, M.R. (2000). When Choice is Demotivating: Can One Desire Too Much of a Good Thing? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 79, 995–1006

Jonhson, E.J., G. C. Dellaert, B., Fox, C., G. Goldstein, D., Haubl, G., P. Larrick, R., W. Payne, J., Peters, E., Schkade, D., Wansick, D., U. Weber, E. (2012). Beyond nudges: Tools of a choice architecture. Mark Lett 23, 487–504

Hopper, J.R., Nielsen, J.M. (1991). Recycling as Altruistic Behavior: Normative and Behavioral Strategies to Expand Participation in a Community Recycling Program. Environment and Behavior 23, 195–220.
DOI 10.1177/0013916591232004

Kahneman, D., Knetsch, J.L., Thaler, R.H. (1991). Anomalies: The Endowment Effect, Loss Aversion, and Status Quo Bias. The Journal of Economic Perspectives 5, 193–206

Kahneman, D., Knetsch, J.L., Thaler, R.H. (1990). Experimental Tests of the Endowment Effect and the Coase Theorem. Journal of Political Economy 98, 1325–1348

Kahneman, D., Tversky, A. (1983). Choices, Values, and Frames. American Psychological Association 39, 341–350

Korhonen, J., Honkasalo, A., & Seppälä, J. (2018). Circular Economy: The Concept and its Limitations. Ecological Economics, 143, 37–46.
DOI 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2017.06.041

Krook, J., Baas, L. (2013). Getting serious about mining the technosphere: a review of recent landfill mining and urban mining research. Journal of Cleaner Production, Special Volume: Urban and Landfill Mining 55, 1–9.
DOI 10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.04.043

Krook, J., Carlsson, A., Eklund, M., Frändegård, P., Svensson, N., (2011). Urban mining: hibernating copper stocks in local power grids. Journal of Cleaner Production 19, 1052–1056

Kuong, I. H., Li, J., Zhang, J., & Zeng, X. (2019). Estimating the Evolution of Urban Mining Resources in Hong Kong, Up to the Year 2050. Environmental Science and Technology, 53(3), 1394–1403.
DOI 10.1021/acs.est.8b04063

Lambeth, Veolia UK. (2017). Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) recycling event Lambeth Council [WWW Document]. URL (accessed 10.28.19)

Le Bozec, A. (2008). The implementation of PAYT system under the condition of financial balance in France. Waste Management, Pay as you throw: a tool for urban waste management 28, 2786–2792.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2008.03.028

Le, H.-L., Yamasue, E., Okumura, H., Ishihara, K.N. (2013). ‘Analysis of Intentions to Recycle Electronic Waste (E-Waste) Using the Theory of Planned Behavior: A Case Study in Urban Areas of Vietnam’, Green Energy and Technology (pp. 73–79) Springer Japan

Lerner, J., Small, D., Loewenstein, G. (2004). Heart Strings and Purse Strings. American Psychological Society, Psychological Science 15, 337–342

Let’s Recycle. (2019). DEFRA proposes WEEE target hike [WWW Document]. URL (accessed 10.28.19)

Liu, J., Bai, H., Zhang, Q., Jing, Q., Xu, H. (2019). Why are obsolete mobile phones difficult to recycle in China? Resources, Conservation and Recycling 141, 200–210.
DOI 10.1016/j.resconrec.2018.10.030

Meder, B., Fleischhut, N., Osman, M. (2018). Beyond the confines of choice architecture: A critical analysis. Journal of Economic Psychology 68, 36–44.
DOI 10.1016/j.joep.2018.08.004

Milovantseva, N., Saphores, J.-D. (2013). Time bomb or hidden treasure? Characteristics of junk TVs and of the US households who store them. Waste Management, Special Thematic Issue: Urban Mining Urban Mining 33, 519–529.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2012.07.020

Mitchell, G., 2005. Libertarian Paternalism Is an Oxymoron. Nortwestern University Law Review 99, 1–42

Morewedge, C.K., Shu, L.L., Gilbert, D.T., Wilson, T.D. (2009). Bad riddance or good rubbish? Ownership and not loss aversion causes the endowment effect. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 45, 947–951.
DOI 10.1016/j.jesp.2009.05.014

Mueller, S.R., Wäger, P.A., Turner, D.A., Shaw, P.J., Williams, I.D. (2017). A framework for evaluating the accessibility of raw materials from end-of-life products and the Earth’s crust. Waste Management 68, 534–546.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2017.05.043

Nduneseokwu, C., Qu, Y., Appolloni, A., Nduneseokwu, C.K., Qu, Y., Appolloni, A., 2017. Factors Influencing Consumers’ Intentions to Participate in a Formal E-Waste Collection System: A Case Study of Onitsha, Nigeria. Sustainability 9, 881.
DOI 10.3390/su9060881

Oguchi, M., Kameya, T., Yagi, S., Urano, K. (2008). Product flow analysis of various consumer durables in Japan. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 52, 463–480.
DOI 10.1016/j.resconrec.2007.06.001

Ojedokun, O. (2011). Attitude towards littering as a mediator of the relationship between personality attributes and responsible environmental behavior. Waste Management 31, 2601–2611.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2011.08.014

Ongondo, F.O., Williams, I.D. (2011). Greening academia: Use and disposal of mobile phones among university students. Waste Management 31, 1617–1634.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2011.01.031

Ongondo, F.O., Williams, I.D., Whitlock, G. (2015). Distinct Urban Mines: Exploiting secondary resources in unique anthropogenic spaces. Waste Management, Urban Mining 45, 4–9.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2015.05.026

Oswald, I., Reller, A. (2011). E-Waste : A Story of Trashing , Trading , and Valuable Resources

Pakpour, A.H., Zeidi, I.M., Emamjomeh, M.M., Asefzadeh, S., Pearson, H. (2014). Household waste behaviours among a community sample in Iran: An application of the theory of planned behaviour. Waste Management, Waste Management on Asia 34, 980–986.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2013.10.028

Perugini, M., Bagozzi, R.P. (2001). The role of desires and anticipated emotions in goal-directed behaviours: Broadening and deepening the theory of planned behaviour. British Journal of Social Psychology 40, 79–98.
DOI 10.1348/014466601164704

Pierron, X., Williams, I.D., Shaw, P.J., Cleaver, V. (2017). Using choice architecture to exploit a university Distinct Urban Mine. Waste Management 68, 547–556.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2017.06.034

Recycling Today (2018). Rare opportunity to recycle rare earths [WWW Document]. Recycling Today. URL (accessed 9.6.18)

Richetin, J., Sengupta, A., Perugini, M., Adjali, I., Hurling, R., Greetham, D., Spence, M. (2010). A micro-level simulation for the prediction of intention and behavior. Cognitive Systems Research 11, 181–193.
DOI 10.1016/j.cogsys.2009.08.001

Robinson, B.H. (2009). E-waste: an assessment of global production and environmental impacts. The Science of the total environment 408, 183–91.
DOI 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.09.044

Samuelson, W., Richard, Z. (1988). Status Quo Bias in Decision Making. Journal of Risk and Uncertainty 1, 7–59

Schultz, P.W., Oskamp, S., Mainieri, T. (1995). Who recycles and when? A review of personal and situational factors. Journal of Environmental Psychology 15, 105–121.
DOI 10.1016/0272-4944(95)90019-5

Schwartz, S.H. (1968). Awareness of Consequences and the Influence of Moral Norms on Interpersonal Behavior. Sociometry 31, 355–369.
DOI 10.2307/2786399

Silveira, G.T.R., Chang, S.-Y. (2010). Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil. Waste Management, Special Thematic Section: Sanitary Landfilling 30, 2278–2291.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2010.05.011

Simoni, M., Kuhn, E.P., Morf, L.S., Kuendig, R., Adam, F. (2015). Urban mining as a contribution to the resource strategy of the Canton of Zurich. Waste Management, Urban Mining 45, 10–21.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2015.06.045

Singh, J., Ordoñez, I. (2015). Resource recovery from post-consumer waste: important lessons for the upcoming circular economy. Journal of Cleaner Production.
DOI 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.12.020

Song, Q., Li, J. (2015). A review on human health consequences of metals exposure to e-waste in China. Environmental Pollution 196, 450–461.
DOI 10.1016/j.envpol.2014.11.004

Song, Q., Wang, Z., Li, J. (2012). Residents’ behaviors, attitudes, and willingness to pay for recycling e-waste in Macau. Journal of Environmental Management 106, 8–16.
DOI 10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.03.036

Stahel, W. (1977). The potential for substituting manpower for energy: Final report 30 July 1977 for the Commission of the European Communities. Battelle, Geneva Research Centre

Step Initiative (2014). Solving the E-Waste Problem (Step)

Stewart, R., & Niero, M. (2018). Circular economy in corporate sustainability strategies: A review of corporate sustainability reports in the fast-moving consumer goods sector. Business Strategy and the Environment.
DOI 10.1002/bse.2048

Strahilevitz, M., Loewenstein, G. (1998). The Effect of Ownership History on the Valuation of Objects. Journal of Consumer Research 25, 276–289

Su, B., Heshmati, A., Geng, Y., Yu, X. (2013). A review of the circular economy in China: moving from rhetoric to implementation. Journal of Cleaner Production 42, 215–227.
DOI 10.1016/j.jclepro.2012.11.020

Swami, V., Chamorro-Premuzic, T., Snelgar, R., Furnham, A. (2011). Personality, individual differences, and demographic antecedents of self-reported household waste management behaviours. Journal of Environmental Psychology 31, 21–26.
DOI 10.1016/j.jenvp.2010.08.001

Thaler, R. (1980). Toward a Positive Theory of Consumer Choice. Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization 1, 39–60

Thaler, R.H., Sunstein, C.R., Balz, J.P. (2008). Choice Architecture, in: The Behavioral Foundations of Public Policy. Eldar Shafir, pp. 428–439

Thaler, R.H., Sustein, C.R. (2003). Libertarian Paternalism. The American Economic Review 93, 175–179

The Economist (2016). The scientists who make apps addictive [WWW Document]. 1843. URL (accessed 3.29.17)

Thi Thu Nguyen, Hong, Hung, R.-J., Lee, C.-H., Thi Thu Nguyen, Hang. (2018). Determinants of Residents’ E-Waste Recycling Behavioral Intention: A Case Study from Vietnam. Sustainability 11, 164.
DOI 10.3390/su11010164

Tonglet, M., Phillips, P.S., Bates, M.P. (2004). Determining the drivers for householder pro-environmental behaviour: Waste minimisation compared to recycling. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 42, 27–48.
DOI 10.1016/j.resconrec.2004.02.001

Tversky, A., Kahneman, D. (1991). Loss Aversion in Riskless Choice: A Reference-Dependent Model. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 106, 1039–1061.
DOI 10.2307/2937956

Tversky, A., Kahneman, D. (1982). Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. Science 185, 1124–1131

Vence, X., & Pereira, Á. (2019). Eco-innovation and Circular Business Models as drivers for a circular economy. Contaduria y Administracion.
DOI 10.22201/fca.24488410e.2019.1806

Wallsten, B., Magnusson, D., Andersson, S., Krook, J. (2015). The economic conditions for urban infrastructure mining: Using GIS to prospect hibernating copper stocks. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 103, 85–97.
DOI 10.1016/j.resconrec.2015.07.025

Wan, C., Shen, G.Q., Yu, A. (2014). The role of perceived effectiveness of policy measures in predicting recycling behaviour in Hong Kong. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 83, 141–151.
DOI 10.1016/j.resconrec.2013.12.009

Wilkinson, A., Williams, I.D. (2019, October). Why do (W)EEE hoard? The effect of consumer behaviour on the release of (W)EEE from home entertainment products into the circular economy [Paper presentation], in: Proceedings of the Seventeenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium. The 17th International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, S. Margherita di Pula, Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy (pp. 196-201).CISA

Williams, I.D. (2016). ‘Global Metal Reuse, and Formal and Informal Recycling from Electronic and Other High-Tech Wastes’, Metal Sustainability (pp. 23–51). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
DOI 10.1002/9781119009115.ch2

Williams, I.D., Gunton, H. (2007, April). Waste minimisation using behaviour change techniques: a case study for students. in: Waste Matters: Integrating Issues. Proceedings of 2nd BOKU Waste Conference, Vienna, Austria (pp. 303–314). Waste Conference Ltd.,

Wilson, G.T., Smalley, G., Suckling, J.R., Lilley, D., Lee, J., Mawle, R. (2017). The hibernating mobile phone: Dead storage as a barrier to efficient electronic waste recovery. Waste Management, Special Thematic Issue: Urban Mining and Circular Economy 60, 521–533.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2016.12.023

WRAP. (2013). Increase your small WEEE collection rates WRAP UK [WWW Document]. URL (accessed 9.3.16)

Wright, M. (2015). How the circular economy is taking off in the US. The Guardian

WTO. (2014). China — Measures Related to the Exportation of Rare Earths, Tungsten and Molybdenum (Dispute Settlement No. DS431). World Trade Organisation, Switzerland

Zhang, K., Kleit, A.N. (2016). Mining rate optimization considering the stockpiling: A theoretical economics and real option model. Resources Policy 47, 87–94.
DOI 10.1016/j.resourpol.2016.01.005

Zhang, L., Qu, J., Sheng, H., Yang, J., Wu, H., Yuan, Z. (2019). Urban mining potentials of university: In-use and hibernating stocks of personal electronics and students’ disposal behaviors. Resources, Conservation and Recycling 143, 210–217.
DOI 10.1016/j.resconrec.2019.01.007