an official journal of: published by:
Editor in Chief: RAFFAELLO COSSU

BIODEGRADABLE WASTE MANAGEMENT BY ANAEROBIC DIGESTION: A COMPARISON BETWEEN POLICY APPROACHES AND REGULATION IN ITALY AND ISRAEL

  • Francesco Di Maria - LAR5 Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, University of Perugia, Italy
  • Ofira Ayalon - The Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management, University of Haifa, Israel
  • Shira Daskal - The Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management, University of Haifa, Israel

DOI 10.31025/2611-4135/2018.13721

Released under CC BY-NC-ND

Copyright: © 2018 CISA Publisher

Editorial History

  • Received: 24 Jun 2018
  • Revised: 22 Aug 2018
  • Accepted: 05 Sep 2018
  • Available online: 30 Sep 2018

Abstract

Biodegradable waste is a significant component of municipal solid waste (MSW); anaerobic digestion allows the recycling of this waste. This paper presents a comparison between definitions, management, and usage of digestate/sludge and sewage from the anaerobic digestion (AD) of biodegradable waste in Italy and Israel in light of the legislation in both countries. Italian legislation is focused on three main components of the whole management/ recycling chain of bio-waste: the source of the waste, the characteristics of the digestate, the environmental matrix (i.e., soil and water) affected by the use of the digestate. Some relevant differences are currently present in the legislation concerning bio-waste and the sewage sludge management. In particular, both EU and Italian legislation lack specific “end-of-waste criteria” regarding the digestate from the AD of bio-waste. The legislation in Israel, on the other hand, is more focused on the application of the digestate and sewage from AD plants on soil rather than the source of the bio-waste. The focus on the end product (waste, water or sludge) is due to scarcity of water as well as soil sensitivity for agriculture use. The comparison indicates profound differences between the two countries, revealing inter alia advantages and disadvantages.​

Keywords


References

Brissaud, F. (2008). Criteria for water recycling and reuse in the Mediterranean countries. Desalination, 218(1-3), 24-33.

CD. (1986). Council Directive 86/278/EEC of 12 June 1986 on the protection of the environment, and in particular of the soil, when sewage sludge is used in agriculture. Official Journal L 181, 04/07/1986 P. 0006 – 0012.

CD. (1991a). Council Directive 91/676/EEC of 12 December 1991 concerning the protection of waters against pollution caused by nitrates from agricultural sources. Official Journal L 375, 31/12/1991 P. 0001 – 0008.

CD. (1991b). Council Directive 91/272/CEE of 21 May 1991 concerning urban waste water treatment. Official Journal L 135, 30/05/1991 P. 0040-0052.

Daskal, S. Ayalon, O. Shechter, M. (2018). The State of Municipal Solid Waste Management in Israel. Waste Management & Research. In Press.

Di Maria, F., Micale, C., Contini, S. (2016). Energetic and environmental sustainability of the co-digestion of sludge with bio-waste in a life cycle perspective. Applied Energy 171; 67-76.

Di Maria, F., Micale, C. (2017). Energetic potential of the co-digestion of sludge with bio-waste in existing wastewater treatment plant digesters: A case study of an Italian province. Energy 136; 110-116.

D.Lgs. (1999). Decreto Legislativo 11 maggio 1999, n. 152. “Testo aggiornato del decreto legislativo 11 maggio 1999, n. 152, recante: “Disposizioni sulla tutela delle acque dall’inquinamento e recepimento della direttiva 91/271/CEE concernente il trattamento delle acque reflue urbane e della direttiva 91/676/CEE relative alla protezione delle acque dall’inquinamento provocato dai nitrati provenienti da fonti agricole”, a seguito delle disposizioni correttive ed integrative di cui al decreto legislativo 18 agosto 2000, n. 258”. Gazzetta Ufficiale n. 246, 20 Ottobre 2000. S.O. n.172 (in Italian)

D.Lgs. (2006). Decreto legislativo 3 aprile 2006, n. 152. Norme in materia ambientale Gazzetta Ufficiale. n. 88 del 14 aprile 2006. (in Italian)

D.M. (2003). DECRETO MINISTERIALE 12 giugno 2003, n. 185 «Regolamento recante norme tecniche per il riutilizzo delle acque reflue in attuazione dell’articolo 26, comma 2, del D.Lgs. 11 maggio 1999, n. 152». Gazetta Ufficiale 23 luglio 2003, S.O. n. 169. (in Italian)

EBA. (2016). EBA launches 6th edition of the Statistical Report of the European Biogas Association. Available at: http://european-biogas.eu/2016/12/21/eba-launches-6th-edition-of-the-statistical-report-of-the-european-biogas-association/ (accessed 22.8.18).

EC. (2001). DIRECTIVE 2001/77/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 27 September 2001 on the promotion of electricity produced from renewable energy sources in the internal electricity market. Official Journal of the European Communities, 27.10.2001.

EC. (2015). Optimising water reuse in the EU – Final report Part I. ISBN 978-92-79-46835-3 doi: 10.2779/603205.

EC. (2017a). Optimal use of biogas from waste streams An assessment of the potential of biogas from digestion in the EU beyond 2020. Available at: https://ec.europa.eu/energy/sites/ener/files/documents/ce_delft_3g84_biogas_beyond_2020_final_report.pdf (accessed 22.8.18).

EC. (2017b). Communication from the commission to the European Parliament, the council, the European economic and social committee and the committee of the regions. The role of waste-to-energy in the circular economy. COM(2017) 34 final, 26.1.2017. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/waste-to-energy.pdf (accessed 22.8.18).

EEA. (2016). Renewable energy in Europe. Recent growth and knock-on effects. EEA report 4/2016. ISBN 978-92-9213-727-4.

Inbar, Y. (2007). New standards for treated wastewater reuse in Israel. In Wastewater reuse–Risk assessment, decision-making and environmental security (pp. 291-296). Springer, Dordrecht.

ISPRA. (2017). Rapporto Rifiuti Urbani. Edizione 20176. ISPRA, Rapporti 272/2017. ISBN 978-88-448-0852-5.

MoEP. (2014).Wastewater. Available at: http://www.sviva.gov.il/English/env_topics/Wastewater/Pages/default.aspx (accessed 22.8.18)

MoEP. (2017) Sewage disposal of municipal wastewater treatment plants (in Hebrew). Available at: http://www.sviva.gov.il/subjectsEnv/Wastewater/MunicipalWastewater/TreatmentPlants/Pages/default.aspx (accessed 22.8.18)

MoH. (2010). Public Health Regulations (Quality standards for effluents and rules for sewage purification) (in Hebrew) Available at: https://www.health.gov.il/LegislationLibrary/Briut01.pdf (accessed 22.8.18)

OECD. (2011). OECD Environmental Performance Reviews: Israel 2011. Available at: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/environment/oecd-environmental-performance-reviews-israel-2011_9789264117563-en (accessed 22.8.18)

Pagliaro, M. (2017). Scientific cooperation between Italy and Israel: A perspective looking to the future. J. Sci. Human. Arts, 4(2).

Pognani M, D’Imporzano G, Scaglia B, Adani F. (2009). Substitution energy crops with organic fraction of municipal solid waste for biogas production at farm level: A full-scale plant study. Process biochemistry 44,817-821.

Schievano A, D’Imporzano G, Adani F. (2009). Substituting energy crops with organic wastes and agro-industrial residues for biogas production. Journal of Environmental Management. 90,2537-2541.

Schievano A, D’Imporzano G, Orzi V, Colombo G, Maggiore T, Adani F. (2015). Biogas from dedicated energy crops in Northern Italy: electric energy generation costs. GCB Bioenergy 7,899-908.

Schacht, K., Chen, Y., Tarchitzky, J., & Marschner, B. (2016). The use of treated wastewater for irrigation as a component of integrated water resources management: reducing environmental implications on soil and groundwater by evaluating site-specific soil sensitivities. In Integrated Water Resources Management: Concept, Research and Implementation (pp. 459-470). Springer, Cham.

Shachaf Environmental Planning (2014). The national survey of the composition of waste, final report for the MoEP (in Hebrew). Available at: http://www.sviva.gov.il/InfoServices/ReservoirInfo/DocLib2/Publications/P0701-P0800/P0749.pdf (accessed 22.8.18)

Tous, J., & Ferguson, L. (1996). Mediterranean fruits. Progress in new crops, 416-430.

WFD. (2008). Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and for the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives. Official Journal L312, 22/11/2008, P. 0003-0030.

WR. (2004). Water Regulations (Use and Disposal of Sludge) 5764-2004. Available at: http://www.sviva.gov.il/English/Legislation/Documents/Water%20Laws%20and%20Regulations/WaterRegulations-UseAndDisposalOfSludge-2004.pdf (accessed 22.8.18).


feb
23
sep
30