an official journal of: published by:
Editor in Chief: RAFFAELLO COSSU


  • Francesco Di Maria - LAR5 Laboratory, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, University of Perugia, Italy
  • Ofira Ayalon - The Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management, University of Haifa, Israel
  • Shira Daskal - The Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Management, University of Haifa, Israel


Released under CC BY-NC-ND

Copyright: © 2018 CISA Publisher


Biodegradable waste is a significant component of municipal solid waste (MSW); anaerobic digestion allows the recycling of this waste. This paper presents a comparison between definitions, management, and usage of digestate/sludge and sewage from the anaerobic digestion (AD) of biodegradable waste in Italy and Israel in light of the legislation in both countries. Italian legislation is focused on three main components of the whole management/ recycling chain of bio-waste: the source of the waste, the characteristics of the digestate, the environmental matrix (i.e., soil and water) affected by the use of the digestate. Some relevant differences are currently present in the legislation concerning bio-waste and the sewage sludge management. In particular, both EU and Italian legislation lack specific “end-of-waste criteria” regarding the digestate from the AD of bio-waste. The legislation in Israel, on the other hand, is more focused on the application of the digestate and sewage from AD plants on soil rather than the source of the bio-waste. The focus on the end product (waste, water or sludge) is due to scarcity of water as well as soil sensitivity for agriculture use. The comparison indicates profound differences between the two countries, revealing inter alia advantages and disadvantages.​


Editorial History

  • Received: 24 Jun 2018
  • Revised: 22 Aug 2018
  • Accepted: 05 Sep 2018
  • Available online: 30 Sep 2018


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