an official journal of: published by:
an official journal of: published by:
Editor in Chief: RAFFAELLO COSSU


  • Pierre Hennebert - Conseil Développement Environnement, France
  • Alejandro Navazas - European Recycling Industries' Confederation (EuRIC), Belgium
  • Emmanuel Katrakis - European Recycling Industries' Confederation (EuRIC), Belgium

Access restricted to subscribed members only

Released under All rights reserved

Copyright: © 2023 CISA Publisher


EuRIC, the European Recycling Industries’ Confederation, proposes five regulatory actions to enhance material circularity: i) Set stable regulations based on the principle of "one substance - one assessment" along with realistic, evidence-based scientific risk assessments; ii) Prioritise increasing waste collection for a better elimination of substances of concern to reducing the concentration limit in recycled products; iii) Strict enforcement of an Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) scheme for all restricted or banned substances, where exemptions should be carefully considered by evidence-based science; iv) Align the classification hazard systems used for waste materials with those used for products; v) Grant an end-of-waste status (EoW) at the output of a controlled, certified industrial loop. Those propositions create a level playing field for collection, sorting, and waste preparation within EU and an improved waste shipment. The underlying question is striking the right balance between the precautionary and responsibility principles in the circular economy. Given the presence of hazardous "legacy" substances and the prolonged life of certain products within an evolving regulatory framework, the recycling industry proposes controlled-risk solutions aligned with the intended use or recycled materials for products not yet ecodesigned. The recommendations suggest a shift in the waste definition, considering the fate of matter within the waste hierarchy—emphasizing prevention, management, and policy alignment with the principles of the circular economy. So, materials that can be prepared for reuse or recycling are categorized as pre-materials, while those suitable only for other recovery methods such as energy recovery or landfilling are considered wastes.


Editorial History

  • Received: 02 Oct 2023
  • Revised: 18 Jan 2024
  • Accepted: 05 Feb 2024
  • Available online: 25 Feb 2024


Bontoux L, Leone F. The legal definition of waste and its impact on waste management in Europe. A report prepared by IPTS for the Committee for Environment, Public Health and Consumer Protection of the European Parliament. European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Institute for Prospective Technological Studies (IPTC), Isla de la Cartuja, Sevilla, Spain, 1997.

Bridges J W., Greim H, van Leeuwen K, Stegmann R, Vermeire Th, den Haan K. 2023. Is the EU chemicals strategy for sustainability a green deal? Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 139 (2023) 105356.
DOI 10.1016/j.yrtph.2023.105356

EC 2008 (CLP). Regulation EC No 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 16 December 2008 on classification, labelling and packaging of substances and mixtures, amending and repealing Directives 67/548/EEC and 1999/45/EC, and amending Regulation (EC) No 1907/2006. 31.12.2008 Official Journal of the European Union L 353/1. EN/TXT/PDF/?uri=CELEX:32008R1272&rid=1

EC 2018a. Options to address the interface between chemical, product and waste legislation. Communication from the Commission to the European parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions on the implementation of the circular economy package. COM(2018) 32 final

EC 2018b. European Commission. Commission notice on technical guidance on the classification of waste (2018/C 124/01). OJEU 9.4.2018. 134 p.

EC 2019. The European Green Deal. Communication from the Commission to the European Parliament, the European Council, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Committee of the Regions. COM(2019) 640 final. 11.12.2019. 24 p

EC 2020a. Chemicals Strategy for Sustainability Towards a Toxic-Free Environment. Communication from the Commission to the European parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions. COM(2020) 667 final. 14/10/2020. 25 p

EC 2020b. Study to asses Member States (MS) practices on by-product (BP) and end-of-waste (EoW). Reference: N° 070201/2018/793241/ENV.B.3. Final Report. Authors: Umweltbundesamt GmbH (EAA) and ARCADIS Belgium NV

ECHA 2017. Guidance on the Application of the CLP Criteria Guidance to Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 on classification, labelling and packaging (CLP) of substances and mixtures Version 5.0 July 2017. 647 p.

EU 2017. Council Regulation (EU) 2017/997 of 8 June 2017 amending Annex III to Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards the hazardous property HP 14 ‘Ecotoxic’. Official Journal of the European Union. 14.6.2017. L 150/1.

EU 2018. Directive 2018/851 Waste Framework Directive amending Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and on the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives. OJ L 312, 22.11.2008, p. 3-59). (consolidated version)

EuRIC 2019. Top 5 Priorities of the Recycling Industry for the Period 2019-2024. Brochure. 8 p.

EuRIC 2020. Sound Management of Waste & Chemicals requirements by the recycling industry. Prepared by Christer Forsgren. Brochure 8 p.

EuRIC 2022. EPR Schemes, EuRIC Position, Circular Economy – Fair competition – State-of-the art recycling, 8 November 2022. 5 p.

EuRIC 2023. Risk-based approaches for waste management in the modern circular economy. Pierre Hennebert. Available upon request to EuRIC. 100 p.

Friege H, Zeschmar-Lahl B, Kummer B, Wagner J. 2021. The new European database for chemicals of concern: How useful is SCIP for waste management? Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy 21 (2021) 100430.
DOI 10.1016/j.scp.2021.100430

Guéguen D, Marissen V. 2022. Policy-making in the European Union: coexisting or conflicting concepts? College of Europe. Bruges Political Research Papers 88 / 2022.

Hennebert P, Beggio G. 2021. Sampling and sub-sampling of granular waste: size of a representative sample in terms of number of particles. Detritus 17 – 2021, 1-12.
DOI 10.31025/2611-4135/2021.15139

Hennebert P, Humez N, Conche I, Bishop I, Rebischung F. 2016. Assessment of four calculation methods proposed by the EC for waste hazard property HP 14 ‘Ecotoxic’. Waste Management 48 (2016) 24–33.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2015.11.044

Hennebert P, Stoffel A-F, Hubner M, Fortmann D, Merdy P, Beggio G. 2022. The inherent variability of some environmental analytical methods hampers the circular economy of materials. Detritus. 17 p.. + Supp info
DOI 10.31025/2611-4135/2022.16225

Hennebert P, van der Sloot H, Rebischung F, Weltens R, Geert L, Hjelmar O. 2014. Classification of waste for hazard properties according to the recent propositions of the EC using different methods. Waste Management 34 (2014) 1739–1751. PII: S0956-053X(14)00247-5,
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2014.05.021

Hennebert P. 2018. Proposal of concentration limits for determining the hazard property HP 14 for waste using ecotoxicological tests. Waste Management 74, April 2018, 74-5.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2017.11.048

Hennebert P. 2019. Hazard classification of waste: review of available practical methods and tools. Detritus. 07, 13-28.
DOI 10.31025/2611-4135/2019.13846

Hennebert P. 2021. The substitution of regulated brominated flame retardants in plastic products and waste and the declared properties of the substitutes in REACh. Detritus 16 – 2021, 16-25.
DOI 10.31025/2611-4135/2021.15122

Hennebert P. 2022. Risk management of hazardous solid waste according by hazardous property including mercury contaminated wastes. Detritus, 20 – 2022, 78-89.
DOI 10.31025/2611-4135/2022.15212

Hennebert P. 2023. Hazardous properties of mineral and organo-mineral additives and management of hazardous plastics. Detritus 2023, 23 – 2023, 83-93.
DOI 10.31025/2611-4135/2023.17275

Johannson O. 2022. Did end of waste bring the end of waste? Editorial. Detritus, 20 – 2022, 1-2.
DOI 10.31025/2611-4135/2022.15220

Johansson N, C. Forsgren. 2020. Is this the end of end-of-waste? Uncovering the space between waste and Products. Resources, Conservation & Recycling 155 (2020) 104656.
DOI 10.1016/j.resconrec.2019.104656

Madelung S. 2023. Tire circularity and sustainability, in Tire recycling – making the wheel go round … from an environmental and policy perspective. EuRIC MTR conference, Brussels, 18/04/2023. p 84 of 250 p

MEDDE 2016. Ministère de l’Ecologie, du Développement Durable et de l’Energie (France). Notice to operators of waste treatment facilities and operators of production facilities using waste as a substitute for raw materials (in French). Official Journal of January 13, 2016.

Moser, H., and Römbke, J. (Eds), 2009. Ecotoxicological characterization of waste - Results and experiences of a European ring test. Springer Ltd.,NewYork, USA. 308 pp. All results and raw data at

Moser, H., Römbke, J., Donnevert, G., Becker, R., 2010. Evaluation of biological methods for a future methodological implementation of the Hazard criterion H14 ‘ecotoxic’ in the European waste list (2000/532/EC). Waste Manage. Res. 29 (2), 180–187

Pongrácz E, Pohjola VJ. 1997. The conceptual model of waste management. Proceedings of the ENTREE’97, 12–14 November 1997, Sophia Antipolis, France, p. 65–77

Pongrácz E. 2002. PhD Thesis. Re-defining the concepts of waste and waste management: Evolving the Theory of Waste Management. Doctoral dissertation. Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, University of Oulu, Finland, 2002. Available in electronic format at:

UK 2023a. Quality protocols.

UK 2023b. Guidance - Waste: export and import.

van Ewijk S, Stegemann J A. 2020. Recognising waste use potential to achieve a circular economy. Waste Management 105 (2020) 1–7.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2020.01.019