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Editor in Chief: RAFFAELLO COSSU

SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPLEMENTING DECENTRALIZED BIOGAS SOLUTIONS IN INDIA: A VIABLE PATHWAY FOR BIOBASED ECONOMY

  • Sameena Begum - Bioengineering and Environmental Sciences Group, EEFF Department, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT), India - School of Engineering, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT), Australia ,
  • Gangagni Rao Anupoju - Bioengineering and Environmental Sciences Group, EEFF Department, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT) , India
  • Sridhar Sundergopal - Bioengineering and Environmental Sciences Group, EEFF Department, CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Technology (IICT) , India
  • Suresh K. Bhargava - School of Science, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) , Australia
  • Veeriah Jegatheesan - School of Engineering, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) , Australia
  • Nicky Eshtiaghi - School of Engineering, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology (RMIT) , Australia

DOI 10.26403/detritus/2018.19

Released under CC BY-NC-ND

Copyright: © Cisa Publisher

Editorial History

  • Received: 31 Jan 2018
  • Revised: 04 Mar 2018
  • Accepted: 20 Mar 2018
  • Available online: 31 Mar 2018

Abstract

In recent years, world economy has achieved considerable economic and social development, but this has resulted in the widespread degradation and depletion of our natural environment. Solid-waste generation increases exponentionally due to the rapid urbanization, but inappropriate waste handling causes health hazards and urban environment degradation. The goal of strengthening bio-based economy is potentially related to biogas solutions with respect to solid waste management in several ways. Bio based economy demands new ways of philosophy and co-operation within and across sectors to minimise the environmental footprint and climate change throughout the value chain. The range and significance of biogas technologies has increased rapidly during the last 30 years for the treatment of organic waste. The typical way of perceiving the role of biogas solutions is as a last step in cascading the biomass where renewable energy in the form of biogas is produced along with bio-fertiliser. Among the existing technologies for waste treatment, anaerobic digestion (AD) plays a key role in reducing waste along with the generation of renewable energy as it plays a key role in reducing the adverse effects on environmental and climatic changes of the biosphere such as the reduction of NOx and CO2 emissions in the atmosphere, leading to reduced carbon foot print and reduction in solid waste accumulation. However, AD of organic waste with conventional digesters is not practicable for the processing of large quantities of waste generated in India. The aim of the present work is to present knowledge and technological gaps between slow rate and high rate biogas solutions that emerged in India, used to replace conventional fuels with renewable and green fuel (biogas) through initiatives taken up by the governmental and private organizations. It also highlights the promoters in spreading the biogas technology in a decentralized manner, to tackle the waste management issues and barriers that hindered the adoption of biogas technologies, e.g. lack of awareness, financing etc. A comparison between the conventional and high rate digesters in terms of its design, process, product yield and its economic feasibility at small and bigscale is essential to understand the significance of setting up decentralized biogas solutions. Practical experiences witnessed in installing, commissioning and working of a decentralized biogas plant for the treatment of organic waste are presented as case studies, together with output in terms of biogas, digestate, techno economic and environmental assessments combined with the discussion on technology transfer and commercialization. This includes a techno-commercial understanding of the technology and its relevance to the Indian scenario.

Keywords


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