an official journal of: published by:
Editor in Chief: RAFFAELLO COSSU

REUSE IN PRACTICE: THE UK’S CAR AND CLOTHING SECTORS

  • Peter Shaw - Centre for Environmental Science, University of Southampton, United Kingdom
  • Ian Williams - Faculty of Engineering & Physical Science, University of Southampton, United Kingdom

DOI 10.31025/2611-4135/2018.13735

Released under CC BY-NC-ND

Copyright: © 2018 CISA Publisher

Editorial History

  • Received: 28 Jun 2018
  • Revised: 24 Sep 2018
  • Accepted: 03 Oct 2018
  • Available online: 22 Nov 2018

Abstract

Ongoing efforts to seek better resource efficiency have highlighted the role of reuse as a contributor to achieving circular economy objectives. In order to improve resource efficiency, the motives, means and opportunities for reuse need to be understood such that best practice can be identified and measures implemented to foster more effective and more extensive reuse. This study compares and contrasts reuse in the car and car components sector with the clothing sector as a means to identify commonalities and differences, and seek facets of effective practice. The car sector is found to align more with financial motives than the clothing sector, the latter providing more marked and apparent social benefits. Three key aspects appear common to both sectors. First, whole lifecycle – cradle to cradle – approaches to enhancing reuse are emerging and have considerable merit from a circular economy perspective. Secondly, the internet has become a key tool for the facilitation of reuse and is likely to grow further in this regard. Thirdly, decisions regarding the end-of-use of consumer products are critical and need to be better understood. Fourthly, for any reuse initiative to deliver positive outcomes, consumers must be fully engaged. We conclude that whilst some sector-specific adjustments may have to be implemented in future initiatives to promote and enhance reuse activities, the overarching principles and optimum methods of reuse facilitation may well be common for contrasting sectors.

Keywords


References

Amelia L., Wahab D.A., Che Haron C.H., Muhamad N. & Azhari C.H. (2009). Initiating automotive component reuse in Malaysia. J. Clean. Prod. vol. 17, 1572–1579

Beasley J. & Georgeson R. (2016). Reuse in the UK and Ireland a “State of the Nations” report for the Chartered Institution of Wastes Management. https://www.ciwm-journal.co.uk/downloads/Reuse-in-the-UK-and-Ireland-WEB.pdf [last accessed 12/3/2018]

Bellmann K. & Khare A. (1999). European response to issues in recycling car plastics. Technovation, vol.19, 721–734

Birtwistle G. & Moore C. M. (2007). Fashion clothing — where does it all end up? Int. J. Retail Dist. Manage., vol. 35, 210–216

Braungart M. & McDonough W. (2009). Cradle to cradle: remaking the way we make things. Vintage Paperbacks; London

Department for Transport (DfT) (2017). Vehicle licensing statistics. https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/vehicles-statistics [last accessed 11/3/2018]

Dahlbo H., Aalto K., Eskelinen H. & Salmenperä H.(2017). Increasing textile circulation — consequences and requirements. Sust. Prod. Cons., vol. 9, 44-57

Diop, S.-A. & Shaw, P.J. (2018). End of use textiles: gifting and giving in relation to societal and situational factors. Detritus, vol. 1 155-161

Ellen MacArthur Foundation (2017). What is a circular economy? https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/circular-economy [last accessed 12/3/2018]

Esteve-Turrillas F.A. & de la Guardia M. (2017). Environmental impact of recover cotton in textile industry. Resourc. Cons. Recycl. vol. 116, 107-115

European Community (EC) (1999) EC Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A31999L0031 [accessed 21/6/2018]

EC (2000). End-of-life Vehicles Directive 2000/53/EC (2000). http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=legissum:l21225 [last accessed 12/3/2018]

EC (2008). Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC (2008). http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/framework/ [last accessed 12/3/2018]

EC (2018). Circular Economy: Implementation of the Circular Economy Action Plan, 2018 Circular Economy Package. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/circular-economy/index_en.htm [last accessed 21/6/2018]

Europa (2018). End-of-life vehicle statistics. https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/End-of-life_vehicle_statistics#Total_weight_of_end-of-life_vehicles [last accessed 19/9/2018]

Farmer T.D., Shaw P.J. & Williams, I.D. (2015). Destined for indecision? A critical analysis of waste management practices in England from 1996 to 2013. Waste Manage. vol. 39 266-276

Foreveramber (2017). 6 ways to make money from your closet clearout. http://www.foreveramber.co.uk/where-to-sell-used-clothes [last accessed 12/3/2018]

Go T.F., Wahab D.A., Rahman M.N.A., Ramli R. & Azhari C.H. (2011). Disassemblability of end-of-life vehicle: a critical review of evaluation methods. J. Clean. Prod. vo. 19, 1536-1546

Go T.F., Wahab D.A., Rahman M.N.A., Ramli & Hussain R.A. (2012). Genetically optimised disassembly sequence for automotive component reuse. Exp. Syst. Appl., vol. 39, 5409–5417

Gregson N. & Crewe L. (1994). Beyond the high street and the mall: car boot fairs and the new geographies of consumption in the 1990s. Area vol. 26, 261–267

Joung H-M (2013) Materialism and clothing post-purchase behaviors, J. Cons. Market., vol. 30, 530-537

Joung H-M & Park-Poaps H. (2013). Factors motivating and influencing clothing disposal behaviours. Int. J. Cons. Stud, vol. 37, 105–111

Laitala K. (2014). Consumers’ clothing disposal behaviour – a synthesis of research results. Int. J. Cons. Stud., vol. 38, 444–457

Lebreton B. & Tuma A. (2006). A quantitative approach to assessing the profitability of car and truck tire remanufacturing. Int. J. Prod. Econ., vol 104, 639–652

Local Government Association (LGA) (2014) Routes to reuse: maximising value from reused materials. Local Government Association; London

Love Your Clothes (2018). How to organise a successful swishing clothes swap event. https://www.loveyourclothes.org.uk [last accessed 13/3/2018]

McKenna R., Reith S., Cail S., Kessler A. & Fichtner W. (2013). Energy savings through direct secondary reuse: an exemplary analysis of the German automotive sector. J. Clean. Prod. vol. 52, 103-112

McKinsey & Company (2017) The state of fashion 2017. McKinsey & Company. https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/retail/our-insights/the-state-of-fashion [last accessed 12/3/2018]

Matsumoto M. (2009). Business frameworks for sustainable society: a case study on reuse industries in Japan. J. Clean. Prod. vol. 17, 1547–1555

Morley N.J., Bartlett, C. & McGill I. (2009). Maximising reuse and recycling of UK clothing and textiles: a report to the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs. Oakdene Hollins Ltd

MUD Jeans (2018) How lease jeans works. https://mudjeans.eu/how-lease-a-jeans-works/) [Last accessed 21/9/2018]

Office for National Statistics (ONS) (2018) Percentage of households with durable goods, UK. https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/personalandhouseholdfinances/expenditure/datasets/percentageofhouseholdswithdurablegoodsuktablea45 [Last accessed 19/9/2018]

Ongondo F.O., Williams I.D. & Whitlock G. (2015). Distinct urban mines: exploiting secondary resources in unique anthropogenic spaces. Waste Manage. vol. 45, 4-9

Osterley R. & Williams I.D. (2018). The benefits of reuse via charity shops. Proceedings of SUM2018, Fourth Symposium on Urban Mining, 21-23 May 2018, Bergamo, Italy

Paras M.K., Pal R & Ekwall D. (2018) Systematic literature review to develop a conceptual framework for a reuse-based clothing value chain. Int. Rev. Retail, Dist. Cons. Res., vol. 28:3, 231-258

Pookulangara S. & Shepard A. (2013). Slow fashion movement: understanding consumer perceptions — an exploratory study. J. Retail. Cons. Serv., vol. 20, 200-206

Resta B. & Dotti S. (2015). Environmental impact assessment methods for textiles and clothing. In: Muthu S.S. (ed.), Handbook of life cycle assessment (LCA) of textiles and clothing, pp. 149-191. Elsevier; London

Sandin G. & Peters G.M. (2017) Environmental impact of textile reuse and recycling e: a review. J. Clean. Prod., vol. 184, 353-365

Society of Motor Manufacturers and Traders (SMMT) (2018a). Car registrations. https://www.smmt.co.uk/vehicle-data/car-registrations/ [last accessed 11/3/2018]

SMMT (2018b). Used car sales data. https://www.smmt.co.uk/category/vehicle-data/used-car-sales-figures/ [last accessed 11/3/2018]

SMMT (2018c). UK new car market declines in 2017 but demand still third highest in 10 years. https://www.smmt.co.uk/2018/01/uk-new-car-market-declines-2017-demand-still-third-highest-10-years/ [last accessed 19/9/2018]

SMMT (2018d). https://www.smmt.co.uk/2018/02/uk-used-car-market-stays-strong-2017-8-1-million-vehicles-change-hands/ [last accessed 19/9/2018]

Southampton City Council (SCC) (2018). Clothing and textiles. https://www.southampton.gov.uk/bins-recycling/recycling/reduce-reuse-recycle/clothing.aspx [last accessed 13/3/2018]

Statistica (2018a). Worldwide automobile production from 2000 to 2017. https://www.statista.com/statistics/262747/worldwide-automobile-production-since-2000/ [last accessed 26-6-2018]

Statistica (2018b). Apparel market in the United Kingdom (UK) - Statistics & Facts. https://www.statista.com/topics/3348/apparel-market-in-the-uk/ [last accessed 19-9-2018]

Toyota Motor Manufacturing Company (2018). Better Earth. https://www.toyota.co.uk/world-of-toyota/environment/better-earth.json [last accessed 11/3/2018]

UK Government (2003) Household Waste Recycling Act, 20003. http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2003/29/contents [last accessed 25-6-2018]

UK Government (2015) Consumer Rights Act 2015

http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/2015/15/pdfs/ukpga_20150015_en.pdf [21accessed /6/2018]

UK Government (2018). Car parts checked at an MOT. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/car-parts-checked-at-an-mot/car-parts-checked-at-an-mot [last accessed 12/3/2018]

United Nations (UN) (2015). Sustainable development goals. http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/sustainable-development-goals/ [last accessed 11/3/2018]

Wahab D.A., Amelia L., Hooi N.K., Che Haron C.H. & Azhari C.H. (2008). The application of artificial intelligence in optimisation of automotive components for reuse. J. Achieve. Mater. Manufact. Eng., vol. 31 595-601

Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP) (2011). Benefits of reuse case study: clothing. WRAP, Banbury

WRAP (2011). Valuing our clothes: the true cost of how we design, use and dispose of our clothing in the UK. WRAP, Banbury

WRAP (2013). UK textile product flow and market development opportunities. Oakdene Hollins, London. http://www.wrap.org.uk/content/uk-textile-product-flow-and-market-development-opportunities [last accessed 30th August 2016]

WRAP (2016). Textiles: market situation report. WRAP, Banbury

WRAP (2018a). WRAP and the circular economy. http://www.wrap.org.uk/about-us/about/wrap-and-circular-economy [last accessed 12/3/2018]

WRAP (2018b). Love your clothes. http://www.wrap.org.uk/content/love-your-clothes-waste-prevention [last accessed 14/3/2018]

WRAP (2018c) Sustainable Clothing Action Plan http://www.wrap.org.uk/sustainable-textiles/scap [last accessed 25-6-2018]

WRAP (2018d). Face-to-face exchange for reuse. http://www.wrap.org.uk/content/face-face-exchange-re-use [last accessed 25-6-2018]

Weber S, Lynes J & Young S.B. (2017). Fashion interest as a driver for consumer textile waste management: reuse, recycle or disposal. Int. J. Cons. Stud., vol. 41 207–215

Williams I.D. (2015). Forty years of the waste hierarchy. Waste Man. vol. 40, 1-2

Williams I.D. and Shaw P.J. (2017). Reuse: fashion or future? Waste Man. vol. 40, 1-2

Williams I.D. and Shaw P.J. (2018). Key principles for reuse. Proceedings of SUM2018, Fourth Symposium on Urban Mining, 21-23 May 2018, Bergamo, Italy

Woolridge A.C., Ward G.D, Phillips P.S., Collins M. & Gandy S. (2006). Life cycle assessment for reuse/recycling of donated waste textiles compared to use of virgin material: an UK energy saving perspective. Resourc. Cons. Recycl., vol. 46, 94–103


sep
30