an official journal of: published by:
Editor in Chief: RAFFAELLO COSSU


  • Cecilia Anzani - Food and Drug Department , University of Parma , Italy
  • Barbara Prandi - Food and Drug Department , University of Parma , Italy - Department of Human Sciences and Quality of Life Promotion , Telematic University San Raffaele , Italy
  • Tullia Tedeschi - Food and Drug Department , University of Parma , Italy
  • Chiara Baldinelli - Inalca S.p.a. , Italy
  • Giovanni Sorlini - Inalca S.p.a. , Italy
  • Arnaldo Dossena - Food and Drug Department , University of Parma , Italy
  • Stefano Sforza - Food and Drug Department , University of Parma , Italy

DOI 10.31025/2611-4135/2019.13782

Released under CC BY-NC-ND

Copyright: © 2018 CISA Publisher

Editorial History

  • Received: 10 Nov 2018
  • Revised: 13 Feb 2019
  • Accepted: 13 Feb 2019
  • Available online: 31 Mar 2019


A current hot topic in the field of environmental protection and creation of valuable new products is represented by the recovery of food waste from the meat sector. The present study proposed the recovery of bovine hides by means of a sustainable method. Enzymatic hydrolysis was selected as a potential greener methodology for use in the production of protein hydrolysates to be applied on an industrial scale. For this purpose, the enzymatic hydrolysis of bovine hides with Alcalase was investigated following a multiscale approach: lab scale, medium scale and semi-industrial pilot plant. Alcalase turned out to be highly efficient due to its ability to degrade collagen, the main protein of hides. Under the optimized conditions, hides hydrolysis at lab and medium scales enabled to obtain about 85% of protein solubilisation after 6 hours, with a consistent release of free amino acids and a degree of hydrolysis of 17-19%. However, in the pilot plant, the solubilisation decreased due to difficulties in bovine hides mixing in the reactor, which was compensated with a longer reaction time to reach almost a complete protein solubilisation (∼98%). Therefore, the present data demonstrates the applicability of the process at semi-industrial scale for protein recovery with reduced amount of waste by-products.



Alvarez C., Rendueles M. and Diaz M. (2012). The yield of peptides and amino acids following acid hydrolysis of haemoglobin from porcine blood. Animal Production Science, 52(5), 313-320

Anzani C., Prandi B., Buhler S., Tedeschi T., Baldinelli C., Sorlini G., Dossena A. and Sforza S.(2017a). Towards environmentally friendly skin unhairing process: A comparison between enzymatic and oxidative methods and analysis of the protein fraction of the related wastewaters. Journal of Cleaner Production, 164, 1446-1454

Anzani C., Prandi B., Tedeschi T., Baldinelli C., Sorlini G., Wierenga P., Dossena A. and Sforza S. (2017b). Degradation of collagen increases nitrogen solubilisation during enzymatic hydrolysis of fleshing meat. Waste and Biomass Valorization, 1-7

AOAC: Official Methods of Analysis, sixteenth ed. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington DC (2002)

Arunachalam C. and Saritha K.(2009). Protease enzyme: an eco-friendly alternative for leather industry. Indian Journal of Science and Technology, 2(12), 29-32

Awuor O.L., Kirwal M.E., Betty M and Jackim M.F. (2017) Optimization of Alcalase hydrolysis conditions for production of Dagaa (Rastrineobola argentea) Protein hydrolysate with antioxidative properties. Industrial Chemistry, 3, 1-6

Bajza Z. and Vrcek V.(2000). Thermal and enzymatic recovering of proteins from untanned leather waste. Waste Management, 21, 79-84

Butrè C.I., Wierenga P.A. and Gruppen H. (2014a). Influence of water availability on the enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins. Process Biochemistry, 49, 1903-1912

Butrè C.I., Sforza S., Wierenga P.A. and Gruppen H. (2014b). Determination of the influence of substrate concentration on enzyme selectivity using whey protein isolate and Bacillus licheniformis protease. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 62, 10230-10239

Castro H.C., Abreu P.A., Geraldo R.B., Martins R.C.A., Santos R., Loureiro N.I.V., Cabral L.M. and Rodrigues C.R. (2011). Journal of Molecular Recognition. 24,165–181

Cooper M., Gutterres M. and Marcı´lio, N.R. (2011). Environmental developments and researches in Brazilian leather sector. Journal Of The Society Of Leather Technologists And Chemists, 95(2), 43–249

Damrongsakkul S., Ratanathammapan K., Komolpis K. and Tanthapanichakoon W. (2008). Enzymatic hydrolysis of raw hide using papain and neutrase. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 14, 202-206

Demirhan E., Apar D.K. and Özbek B. (2011). Sesame cake protein hydrolysis by Alcalase: Effects of process parameters on hydrolysis, solubilisation and enzyme inactivation. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 28, 195–202

Dong S., Zeng M., Wang D., Liu Z., Zhao Y. and Yang H. (2008). Antioxidant and biochemical properties of protein hydrolysates prepared from silver carp (Hypophthalichthys molitrix). Food Chemistry, 107, 1485-1493

Doucet D., Ottier D.M., Gauthier S.F. and Foegeding E.A. (2003). Enzyme-induced gelation of extensively hydrolysed whey proteins by Alcalase: peptide identification and determination of enzyme specifiticy. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, 51, 6300-6308

Fu R., Yao K., Zhang Q., Jia D., Zhao J. and Chi Y. (2017). Collagen Hydrolysates of Skin Shavings Prepared by Enzymatic Hydrolysis as a Natural Flocculant and Their Flocculating Property. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. 182(1), 55-66

Guerard F., Dufossé L., De La Broise D. and Binet A. (2001). Enzymatic hydrolysis of proteins from yellowfisin tuna (Thunnus albacares) wastes using Alcalase. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic, 11, 1051-1059

Haslaniza H., Maskat M.Y., Wan Aida W.M., Mamot S. and Saadiah, I. (2013). Optimization of enzymatic hydrolysis of cocle (Anadara Granosa) meat wash water precipitate for the development of seafood flavor. International Food Research Journal, 20, 3053-3059

Jayathilakan K., Sultana K., Radhakrishna K. and Bawa A.S. (2010). Utilization of byproducts and waste materials from meat, poultry and fish processing industries: a review. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 49(3), 278–293

Kristinsson H.G. and Rasco B.A. (2000). Fish protein hydrolysates: production, biochemical and functional properties. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 40, 43-81

Lynch S.A., Mullen A.M., O’Neill E., Drummond L. and Álvarez C. (2018). Opportunities and perspectives for utilisation of co-products in the meat industry. Meat Science 144, 62–73

Merz M., Claaßen W., Appel D., Berends P., Rabe S., Blank I., Stressler T. and Fischer L. (2016) Characterization of commercially available peptidases in respect of the production of protein hydrolysates with defined compositions using a three-step methodology. J Mol Catal B-Enz 127:1–10

Morimura S., Nagata H., Uemura Y., Fahmi A., Shigematsu T. and Kida K. (2002). Development of an effective process for utilization of collagen from livestock and fish waste. Process Biochemistry, 37(12), 1403-1412

Mullen A.M., Álvarez C., Pojić M., Hadnadev T.D. and Papageorgiou M. (2015). Classification and target compounds, in: Galanakis, C. (Eds), Food waste recovery. Processing technologies and industrial techniques. Academic Press., Cambridge, pp. 25–57

Muzaifa M., Safriani N. and Zakaria F. (2012). Production of protein hydrolysates from fish byproduct prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation. 5(1), 36-39

Notarnicola B., Puig R., Raggi A., Fullana P., Tassielli G., De Camillis C. and Rius A. (2011). Life cycle assessment of Italian and Spanish bovine leather production systems. Afinidad, 68 (553), 167-180

Ravindran G. and Bryden W.L. (2005). Tryptophan determination in proteins and 20 feedstuffs by ion exchange chromatography. Food Chemistry, 89, 309–314

Raveendran S., Parameswaran, B., Ummalyma S.B., Abraham A., Mathew A.K., Madhavan A., Rebello S. And Pandey A. (2018). Applications of Microbial Enzymes in Food Industry. Food Technology and Biotechnology, 56(1), 16-30

Russ W. and Meyer-Pittroff R. (2004). Utilizing waste products from the food production and processing industries. Critical Reviews in Food Science, 44, 57–62

Saidi S., Belleville M.P., Deratani A. and Amar R.B. (2016). Production of interesting peptide fractions by enzymatic hydrolysis of tuna dark muscle by-product using Alcalase. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology, 25(2), 251-264

Sbroggio M.F., Montilha M.S., Garcia de Figueiredo V.R., Georgetti S.R. and Kurozawa L.E. (2016). Influence of the degree of hydrolysis and type of enzyme on antioxidant activity of okara protein hydrolysatesFood Science and Technology (Campinas), 36(2), 375-381

Segura-Campos M.R., Espinosa-Garcià L., Chel-Guerrero L.A. and Betancur-Ancona D.A. (2012). Effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on solubilità, hydrophobicity, and in vivo digestibility in Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata). 15, 770-780

Singh R., Mittal A., Kumar M. and Mehta P.K. (2016). Microbial protease in commercial applications. Journal of Pharmaceutical Chemistry and Biological Science 4(3):365-74

Tavano O.L. (2013) Protein hydrolysis using proteases: An important tool for food biotechnology. Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic. 90, 1–11

Wisuthiphaet N., Klinchan S. and Kongruang S. (2016). Fish Protein Hydrolysate Production by Acid and Enzymatic Hydrolysis. International Journal of Applied Science and Technology. 9(4), 261-270

Wouters A.G.B, Rombouts I., Fierens E., Brijs K. and Delcour J.A. (2016). Relevance of the Functional Properties of Enzymatic Plant Protein Hydrolysates in Food Systems. comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety, 15, 786-800