an official journal of: published by:
Editor in Chief: RAFFAELLO COSSU

END-OF-LIFE MANAGEMENT OF PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS IN AUSTRIA: CURRENT SITUATION AND OUTLOOK

  • Tudor Dobra - Chair of Waste Processing Technology and Waste Management, Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria
  • Martin Wellacher - Chair of Waste Processing Technology and Waste Management, Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria
  • Roland Pomberger - Chair of Waste Processing Technology and Waste Management, Montanuniversität Leoben, Austria

DOI 10.31025/2611-4135/2020.13915

Released under CC BY-NC-ND

Copyright: © 2019 CISA Publisher

Editorial History

  • Received: 27 Aug 2019
  • Revised: 02 Jan 2020
  • Accepted: 27 Jan 2020
  • Available online: 05 Mar 2020

Abstract

In recent years the end-of-life (EOL) management of photovoltaic (PV) panels has started to attract more attention. By including PV panels in the WEEE Directive in 2012 the European Union has introduced a concrete legislative framework regarding EOL for this sector. Several research investigations into specialized PV recycling processes have been conducted over the last years, although very few of the findings have been implemented on a commercial level up to now. Nowadays, recycling usually still takes place in general recycling plants for flat glass or waste electronics. In this work, the current situation regarding EOL management of PV panels in Austria is analysed by literature research and interviews with stakeholders relevant to the EOL of PV panels. The legislative framework (including national peculiarities) and its influence on current procedures regarding collection and subsequent treatment is shown. Furthermore, current recycling processes are described and a country specific prognosis model is created to assess the future development of waste quantities. Results show that the amount of PV panel waste arising in Austria at the moment is very small and therefore no dedicated recycling takes place. However, quantities will considerably rise in the upcoming years and will act as the main driving force for the implementation of an improved EOL management system including specialised recovery processes.

Keywords


References

Biermayr, P., Dißauer, C., Eberl, M., Enigl, M., Fechner, H., Fischer, L., et al. (2018). Innovative Energietechnologien in Österreich Markentwicklung 2017, Vienna: BMVIT. https://nachhaltigwirtschaften.at/resources/iea_pdf/reports/marktstatistik-2017-endbericht.pdf

BMNT. (2018). Die Bestandaufnahme der Abfallwirtschaft in Österreich - Statusbericht 2018, Vienna. https://www.bmnt.gv.at/dam/jcr:aacdf932-476d-408e-aa00-06ede1a8a6fd/Statusbericht%202018.pdf. Accessed: 18 February 2019

Cucchiella, F., D’Adamo, I., & Rosa, P. (2015). End-of-Life of used photovoltaic modules: A financial analysis. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 47, (552–561).
DOI 10.1016/j.rser.2015.03.076

D’Adamo, I., Miliacca, M., & Rosa, P. (2017). Economic Feasibility for Recycling of Waste Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Modules. International Journal of Photoenergy, 2017, (6, 1–6).
DOI 10.1155/2017/4184676

Deutscher Bundestag. (2015). Gesetz über das Inverkehrbringen, die Rücknahme und die umweltverträgliche Entsorgung von Elektro- und Elektronikgeräten. ElektroG

Elektroaltgeräte Koordinierungsstelle. (2017). Tätigkeitsbericht 2016 (EAK, Ed.), Vienna. https://www.eak-austria.at/presse/TB/Taetigkeitsbericht_2016.pdf. Accessed: 20 February 2019

Elektroaltgeräte Koordinierungsstelle. (2018). Tätigkeitsbericht 2017 (EAK, Ed.), Vienna. https://www.eak-austria.at/presse/TB/Taetigkeitsbericht_2017.pdf. Accessed: 18 February 2019

ERA. (2018). Tarifübersicht, ERA Elektro Recycling Austria. https://www.era-gmbh.at/fileadmin/user_upload/ERA_Tarifuebersicht_ab_01_2019.pdf. Accessed: 15 February 2019

EUR-Lex. (2018). EU directives. https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=LEGISSUM%3Al14527. Accessed: 26 February 2019

European Commission. (2012). Directive 2012/19/EU of the European Parliament and of the Councilof 4 July 2012 on waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). WEEE Directive

Forti, V., Baldé, K., & Kühr, R. (2018). E-waste Statistics: Guidelines on Classifications, Reporting and Indicators, second edition (United Nations University, Ed.)

GOV.UK. (2018). Electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) covered by the WEEE regulations. https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/electrical-and-electronic-equipment-eee-covered-by-the-weee-regulations/electrical-and-electronic-equipment-eee-covered-by-the-weee-regulations. Accessed: 20 February 2019

Interseroh. (2018). Tarifübersicht 2019, Interseroh Austria. https://www.interseroh.at/fileadmin/PDF/Kundeninfo_Sonstige_AT/EAG-Tarife_Jaen_2019_AT.pdf. Accessed: 15 February 2019

Jäger-Waldau, A. (2018). PV Status Report 2018 (Publications Office of the European Union, Ed.). http://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/bitstream/JRC113626/pv_status_report_2018_online.pdf. Accessed: 14 February 2019

Kleiss, G. (2016). Estimating future recycling quantities of PV modules in the European Union. In WIP (Ed.), Proceedings of the EU PVSEC 2016 (Munich) (pp. 2365–2368)

Komoto, K., & Lee, J.-S. (2018). End-of-Life Management of Photovoltaic Panels: Trends in PV Module Recycling Technologies. Report IEA-PVPS T12-10:2018, International Energy Agency

Lunardi, M. M., Alvarez-Gaitan, J. P., Bilbao, J. I., & Corkish, R. (2018). A Review of Recycling Processes for Photovoltaic Modules. In B. Zaidi (Ed.), Solar Panels and Photovoltaic Materials (pp. 9–27). InTech

Malandrino, O., Sica, D., Testa, M., & Supino, S. (2017). Policies and Measures for Sustainable Management of Solar Panel End-of-Life in Italy. Sustainability, 9, (4, 481).
DOI 10.3390/su9040481

Ng, H. K. T., & Wang, Z. (2009). Statistical estimation for the parameters of Weibull distribution based on progressively type-I interval censored sample. Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation, 79, (2, 145–159).
DOI 10.1080/00949650701648822

Paiano, A. (2015). Photovoltaic waste assessment in Italy. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 41, (99–112).
DOI 10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.208

Peeters, J. R., Altamirano, D., Dewulf, W., & Duflou, J. R. (2017). Forecasting the composition of emerging waste streams with sensitivity analysis. A case study for photovoltaic (PV) panels in Flanders. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 120, (14–26).
DOI 10.1016/j.resconrec.2017.01.001

Photovoltaic Austria Federal Association. (2018). Konzept: 100.000 Dächer- und Speicherprogramm als Beitrag zu 100 % erneuerbarem Strom (PV Austria, Ed.). https://www.pvaustria.at/wp-content/uploads/2019-02-04-PVA-Management-Summary-PVA-Konzept-100.000. Accessed: 18 February 2019

Santos, J. D., & Alonso-García, M. C. (2018). Projection of the photovoltaic waste in Spain until 2050. Journal of Cleaner Production, 196, (1613–1628).
DOI 10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.05.252

Solar Waste. (n.d.). European WEEE Directive in your country. http://www.solarwaste.eu/in-your-country/france/. Accessed: 20 February 2019

Veolia. (2018). Planet #October 2018 EN. https://www.veolia.cn/sites/g/files/dvc146/f/assets/documents/2018/11/Planet_Magazine_October_2018.pdf. Accessed: 26 February 2019

Wambach, K. (December 2017). Life Cycle Inventory of Current Photovoltaic Module Recycling Processes in Europe, IEA-PVPS

Wambach, K., & Sander, K. (2015). Perspectives of management of End-of-Life photovoltaic modules. In WIP (Ed.), Proceedings of the EU PVSEC 2015 (Hamburg) (pp. 3073–3078)

Weckend, S., Wade, A., & Heath, G. (June 2016). End-of-Life management solar photovoltaic panels, IRENA & IEA-PVPS

Xu, Y., Li, J., Tan, Q., Peters, A. L., & Yang, C. (2018). Global status of recycling waste solar panels: A review. Waste management (New York, N.Y.), 75, (450–458).
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2018.01.036


nov
18
nov
16