an official journal of: published by:
Editor in Chief: RAFFAELLO COSSU

BENCHMARK ANALYSIS FOR PLASTIC RECYCLATES IN AUSTRIAN WASTE MANAGEMENT

  • Karl Friedrich - Chair of waste processing technology and waste management, Montanuniversitat Leoben Department fur Umwelt- und Energieverfahrentechnik, Austria
  • Selina Möllnitz - Chair of waste processing technology and waste management, Montanuniversitat Leoben Department fur Umwelt- und Energieverfahrentechnik, Austria
  • Stephan Holzschuster - Chair of waste processing technology and waste management, Montanuniversitat Leoben Department fur Umwelt- und Energieverfahrentechnik, Austria
  • Roland Pomberger - Chair of waste processing technology and waste management, Montanuniversitat Leoben Department fur Umwelt- und Energieverfahrentechnik, Austria
  • Daniel Vollprecht - Chair of waste processing technology and waste management, Montanuniversitat Leoben Department fur Umwelt- und Energieverfahrentechnik, Austria
  • Renato Sarc - Department of Environmental and Energy Process Engineering, Chair of Waste Processing Technology and Waste Management, Austria

DOI 10.31025/2611-4135/2019.13869

Released under CC BY-NC-ND

Copyright: © 2019 CISA Publisher

Editorial History

  • Received: 08 Jul 2019
  • Revised: 27 Sep 2019
  • Accepted: 25 Oct 2019
  • Available online: 20 Nov 2019

Abstract

Plastic recyclates are granulates which are produced by the processing of plastic wastes. The circular economy package of the EU, especially the amendment of the Waste Framework Directive, sets a new goal for the use of different types of these recyclates. Corresponding primary raw materials can assure reliable qualities with respect to stable physical and chemical properties. Besides, the production of recyclates is often even more expensive than the production of primary raw material granulates. Several quality assurance measures are carried out along the value chain from plastic waste to final plastic products. Recyclates are evidently priced based on the price of primary raw material granulate. Pricing also correlates with different quality parameters, however, such as degree of mixing, degree of degradation and presence of impurities. This paper examines the correlation between different quality features and how they affect the pricing policy for recyclates. Experts and Stakeholders along the value chain of plastic recycling in Austria and Germany have been interviewed about the most important quality assurance parameters and how they (would) affect prices of recyclates. Therefore, quality parameters for the sorted plastic waste as an input for plastic waste recycling companies and manufactured recyclates are included in this paper. Experts from the plastic waste recycling industry confirmed that there is a profound correlation between price and quality that is presented and discussed in the paper: The higher the quality of the recyclates, the lower the level of impurities and the purer the recyclates, the higher the price.

Keywords


References

DIN EN ISO 179-1 (2010). “Plastics - Determination of Charpy impact properties – Part 1: Non-instrumented impact test”. Published in November 2010.
DOI 10.31030/1625765

DIN EN ISO 527-1 (2018). “Plastics - Determination of tensile properties - Part 1: General principles”. Published in August 2018.
DOI 10.31030/2861408

DIN EN ISO 1133-1 (2012). “Plastics - Determination of the melt mass-flow rate (MFR) and melt volume flow rate (MVR) of thermoplastics - Part 1: Standard method”. Published in March 2012.
DOI 10.31030/1818790

DIN EN ISO 1183-1 (2018). “Plastics - Methods for determining the density of non-cellular plastics - Part 1: Immersion method, liquid pyknometer method and titration method (ISO/DIS 1183- 1:2018)”. Published in March-2018.
DOI 10.31030/1887611

European Union (2018). “Directive (EU) 2018/852 of the European Parliament and the Council of 30 May 2018 amending Directive 94/62/EC on packaging and packaging waste”. Official Journal of the European Union. L 150/141

Grüner Punkt (2019). Infos für Lieferanten. Spezifikationen für Wertstoff-Fraktionen (Information for suppliers. Specifications for recyclable fractions.). Accessed on 23-Sept-2019 at 11:55 a.m.: https://www.gruener-punkt.de/de/downloads.html

Klumpp T., Su X. (2018). “Price-quality competition in a mixed duopoly”. Wiley Journal of Public Economic Theory. Vol. 21. pp. 400-432.
DOI 10.1111/jpet.12357

Martel J. (2018). “Quality, price, and time-on-market”, Economics Letters, Vol. 171, pp. 97-101.
DOI 10.1016/j.econlet.2018.07.025

Moser H., Fabian M., Jung M., Heutling S., Körber G., Oehme I., Wurbs J., Krause S., Kovacs D., Krüger F., Weiss V. (2016). „Steigerung des Kunststoffrecyclings und des Rezyklateinsatzes“ (Increase in plastic recycling and the use of recycled materials). Umweltbundesamt. Position/October 2016. ISSN: 2363-8273

Plasticker (2019). “bvse Market Report Plastics”. New Media Publisher GmbH. Accessed on 17-Sept-2019 at 10:35 a.m.: https://plasticker.de/preise/marktbericht_en.php

PlasticsEurope (2018). “Plastics - the Facts 2018. An analysis of European plastics production, demand and waste data.”. Accessed on 23-Sept-2019 at 12:00 a.m.: https://www.plasticseurope.org/application/files/6315/4510/9658/Plastics_the_facts_2018_AF_web.pdf

Pauwels K., D’Aveni R. (2014). “The formation, evolution and replacement of price-quality relationships”. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 44, Issue 1, pp 46-65.
DOI 10.1007/s11747-014-0408-3

Polymer Comply Europe (2017). “Die Verwendung von recycelten Kunststoffen durch Kunststoffverarbeiter in Europa. Eine qualitative europäische Umfrage in der Industrie. Nationaler Bericht - Deutschland”. (

The use of recycled plastics by plastic processors in Europe. A qualitative European survey in the industry. National Report - Germany ".) Accessed on 05-May-2019 at 10:30 a.m.: https://www.kunststoffverpackungen.de/ show.php?ID=6240

Reitz A. (2019): “Herausforderung Kunststoffverpackung. Hemmnisse für Rezyklateinsatz“ (Challange plastic packaging. Barriers for the use of recyclates?). Published on 16-May-2019. Accessed on 27-Sept-2019 at 00:54 a.m.: https://www.recyclingnews.de/rohstoffe/hemmnisse-fur-rezyklateinsatz/

Rothgang M., Dehio, J., Janßen-Timmen R. (2017). „Ökonomische Perspektiven des Kunststoffreyclings - die Rolle des dualen Systems“ (Economic perspectives of plastic recycling - the role of the Dual System). RWI Materials. Vol. 118. ISBN: 978-3-86788-820-2

Sarc R., Seidler I.M., Kandlbauer L., Lorber K.E., Pomberger R. (2019): Design, quality and quality assurance of solid recovered fuels for the substitution of fossil feedstock in the cement industry – Update 2019. Waste Management & Research, Vol. 37, Issue 9, pp. 885-897.
DOI 10.1177/0734242X19862600

Stoifl B., Bernhardt A., Karigl B., Lampert C., Neubauer M., Thaler P. (2017). „Kunststoffabfälle in Österreich. Aufkommen & Behandlung. Materialien zum Bundesabfallwirtschaftsplan 2017“ (Plastic waste in Austria. Accumulation and treatment. Materials to the National Waste Economic Plan 2017). Umweltbundesamt. Report REP-0650. Wien. ISBN: 978-3-99004-468-1. Accessed on 27-Sept-2019 at 10:35 a.m.: https://www.zeit.de/wirtschaft/2018-01/muellexporte-china-plastikmuell-recycling

Tecson (2019). „Rohölpreise in jährlicher Entwicklung“ (Yearly crude oil price development). Accessed on 24-Sept-2019 at 10:15 a.m.: https://www.tecson.de/oelweltmarkt.html

Uken M. (2018): “Müllexporte nach China. Die Weltmüllkippe schließt” (Waste exports to China. The worlds waste dump closes). Published on 6-Jan-2018. Accessed on 27-Sept-2019 at 00:54 a.m.: https://www.zeit.de/wirtschaft/2018-01/muellexporte-china-plastikmuell-recycling

Vilaplana F., Karlsson S. (2008). “Quality concepts for the improved use of recycled polymeric materials: A review”. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering. Vol. 273. pp. 274-297.
DOI 10.1002/mame.200700393

Voros J. (2019). “An analysis of the dynamic price-quality relationship”. European Journal of Operation Research. Vol. 277 Issue 3, pp. 1037-1045.
DOI 10.1016/j.ejor.2019.03.032

Wallstreet-online (2019). “Euro / US-Dollar (EUR/USD)”. Accessed on 24-Sept-2019 at 11:00 a.m.: https://www.wallstreet-online.de/devisen/euro-us-dollar-eur-usd-kurs

Wilts H., Gries N. von, Dehne I., Oetjen-Dehne R., Buschow N., Sanden J. (2014): „Entwicklung von Maßnahmen und Instrumenten zur Steigerung des Einsatzes von Sekundärrohstoffen – mit Schwerpunkt Sekundärkunststoffe“ (Development of measures and instruments to increase the use of secondary raw materials - with the focus on secondary plastics). UFOPLAN-Vorhaben, FKZ 3712 33 340

Zhe Jin G., Kato A. (2010): „Price, quality, and reputation: evidence from an online field experiment”. RAND Journal of Economics, Vol. 37., No. 4, pp. 983-1005.
DOI 10.1111/j.1756-2171.2006.tb00067.x


nov
18
nov
16