an official journal of: published by:
Editor in Chief: RAFFAELLO COSSU


  • Gratitude Charis - Chemical, Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Botswana International University of Science and Technology, Botswana
  • Gwiranai Danha - Chemical, Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Botswana International University Of Science and Technology, Botswana
  • Edison Muzenda - Chemical, Materials and Metallurgical Engineering, Botswana International University Of Science and Technology, Botswana

DOI 10.31025/2611-4135/2019.13819

Released under CC BY-NC-ND

Copyright: © 2019 CISA Publisher

Editorial History

  • Received: 04 Jan 2019
  • Revised: 20 May 2019
  • Accepted: 03 Jun 2019
  • Available online: 28 Jun 2019


The application of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) enhanced modelling techniques in biomass and solid waste supply chain problems is hinged on a common denominator for both systems: the spatial distribution of supply points and variability of resource quantities. Since the sustainability of bioenergy or waste-to-energy projects around these resources will be affected significantly by the cost of supplying them, it is important to optimize decisions around facility location, size and transport routes. GIS is an important tool that can be used to capture the spatial and temporal dynamics of the biomass and waste. It can then be used alone or integrated with other software tools, for strategic and tactical level optimization of biomass and solid waste supply chains. In as much as a lot of progress has been made globally in research and application of GIS enhanced modelling techniques in biomass and solid waste supply chains, developing nations have trailed behind. This explains why spatial and temporal waste or biomass statistics are not readily available in these areas. This paper reviews recent developments in the application of GIS in biomass and solid waste supply chain models, with the ultimate objective of identifying the gaps and opportunities that exist. It is especially biased towards the use of the biomass and waste in renewable or waste to energy schemes- a fast growing field within the green economy.



Abarca, L., Maas, G., & Hogland, W. (2013). Solid waste management challenges for cities in developing countries. Waste Management, 33(1), 220–232.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2012.09.008

Ahmed, S. M. (2006). Using GIS in Solid Waste Management Planning A case study for Aurangabad , India by Shaikh Moiz Ahmed. Linköpings University.
DOI ISRN: LIU-IDA-D20--06/004--SE

Amundson, J., Sukumara, S., Seay, J., & Badurdeen, F. (2015). Decision Support Models for Integrated Design of Bioenergy Supply Chains. Handbook of Bioenergy.
DOI 10.1007/978-3-319-20092-7_7

Awudu, I., & Zhang, J. (2012). Uncertainties and sustainability concepts in biofuel supply chain management: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16(2), 1359–1368.
DOI 10.1016/j.rser.2011.10.016

Ba, B. H., Prins, C., & Prodhon, C. (2016). Models for optimization and performance evaluation of biomass supply chains: An Operations Research perspective. Renewable Energy, 87, 977–989.
DOI 10.1016/j.renene.2015.07.045

Batidzirai, B., Smeets, E. M. W., & Faaij, A. P. C. (2012). Bioenergy for Sustainable Development in Africa, 117–130.
DOI 10.1007/978-94-007-2181-4

Celli, G., Ghiani, E., Loddo, M., Pilo, F., & Pani, S. (2008). Optimal location of biogas and biomass generation plants. Proceedings of the Universities Power Engineering Conference.
DOI 10.1109/UPEC.2008.4651490

Chalkias, C., & Lasaridi, K. (2009). A GIS based model for the optimisation of municipal solid waste collection : the case study of Nikea , Athens , Greece, 5(10), 640–650

Chalkias, C., & Lasaridi, K. (2011). Benefits from GIS Based Modelling for Municipal Solid Waste Management. In S. Kumar (Ed.), International Waste Management (Vol. 1, pp. 417–434). InTech. Retrieved from

Charis, G., Danha, G., & Muzenda, E. (2018). A critical taxonomy of socio-economic studies around biomass and bio-waste to energy projects. Detritus, 03(2017), 47–57

De Meyer, A., Cattrysse, D., Rasinmäki, J., & Van Orshoven, J. (2014). Methods to optimise the design and management of biomass-for-bioenergy supply chains: A review. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 31, 657–670.
DOI 10.1016/j.rser.2013.12.036

Eason, J. P., & Cremaschi, S. (2014). A multi-objective superstructure optimization approach to biofeedstocks-to-biofuels systems design. Biomass and Bioenergy, 63, 64–75.
DOI 10.1016/j.biombioe.2014.02.010

Fantom, N., & Serajuddin, U. (2016). The World Bank’s classification of countries by income. Policy research working paper. World Bank , (January).
DOI 10.1596/1813-9450-7528

Gasparatos, A., Von Maltitz, G. P., Johnson, F. X., Lee, L., Mathai, M., Puppim De Oliveira, J. A., & Willis, K. J. (2015). Biofuels in sub-Sahara Africa: Drivers, impacts and priority policy areas. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 45, 879–901.
DOI 10.1016/j.rser.2015.02.006

Gold, S., & Seuring, S. (2011). Supply chain and logistics issues of bio-energy production. Journal of Cleaner Production, 19(1), 32–42.
DOI 10.1016/j.jclepro.2010.08.009

Hadidi, L. A., & Omer, M. M. (2017). A financial feasibility model of gasification and anaerobic digestion waste-to-energy ( WTE ) plants in Saudi Arabia. Waste Management, 59, 90–101.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2016.09.030

He-Lambert, L., English, B. C., Lambert, D. M., Shylo, O., Larson, J. A., Yu, T. E., & Wilson, B. (2018). Determining a geographic high resolution supply chain network for a large scale biofuel industry. Applied Energy, 218(November 2017), 266–281.
DOI 10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.02.162

Hombach, L. E., Cambero, C., Sowlati, T., & Walther, G. (2016). Optimal design of supply chains for second generation biofuels incorporating European biofuel regulations. Journal of Cleaner Production, 133, 565–575.
DOI 10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.05.107

Iakovou, E., Karagiannidis, A., Vlachos, D., Toka, A., & Malamakis, A. (2010). Waste biomass-to-energy supply chain management : A critical synthesis. Waste Management, 30(10), 1860–1870.
DOI 10.1016/j.wasman.2010.02.030

IEA. (2010). SuStainable Production of Second Generation Biofuels. Renewable Energy, 1–39.
DOI 9789461739698

IRENA. (2016). Innovation Outlook Advanced Liquid Biofuels, 132. Retrieved from

Ji, X., & Long, X. (2016). A review of the ecological and socioeconomic effects of biofuel and energy policy recommendations, 61, 41–52.
DOI 10.1016/j.rser.2016.03.026

Jingura, R. M., & Kamusoko, R. (2017). Temporal and spatial analysis of electricity generation from biomass sources in sub-Saharan Africa. Cogent Engineering, 4(1), 1–11.
DOI 10.1080/23311916.2017.1296757

Kanzian, C., Holzleitner, F., Stampfer, K., & Ashton, S. (2009). Regional Energy Wood Logistics – Optimizing Local Fuel Supply, 43(December 2008)

Kennes, D., Abubackar, H. N., Diaz, M., Veiga, M. C., & Kennes, C. (2016). Bioethanol production from biomass: Carbohydrate vs syngas fermentation. Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology, 91(2), 304–317.
DOI 10.1002/jctb.4842

Kinoshita, T., Inoue, K., Iwao, K., Kagemoto, H., & Yamagata, Y. (2009). A spatial evaluation of forest biomass usage using GIS, 86, 1–8.
DOI 10.1016/j.apenergy.2008.03.017

Koikai, J. S. (2008). Utilizing GIS-Based Suitability Modeling to Assess the Physical Potential of Bioethanol Processing Plants in Western Kenya. Saint Mary’s University of Minnesota University Central Services Press. Winona, MN, 10(Papers in Resource Analysis), 1–8. Retrieved from

Matheri, A. N., Mbohwa, C., Belaid, M., Seodigeng, T., Ngila, J. C., & Muzenda, E. (2016). Waste to energy technologies from organics fraction of municipal solid waste. Lecture Notes in Engineering and Computer Science, 2226, 1013–1017. Retrieved from

Nhubu, T., Muzenda, E., Mbohwa, C., & Agbenyeku, E. (2017). Sustainability context analysis of municipal solid waste management in Harare, Zimbabwe. In 2nd International Engineering Conference, Federal University of Technology. Minna, Nigeria

Nkosi, N., & Muzenda, E. (2014). A Review and Discussion of Waste Tyre Pyrolysis and Derived Products. Proceedings of the World Congress En Engineering 2014, II

Nogueira, L. A. H., Antonio de Souza, L. G., Cortez, L. A. B., & Leal, M. R. L. V. (2017). Sustainable and Integrated Bioenergy Assessment for Latin America, Caribbean and Africa (SIByl-LACAf): The path from feasibility to acceptability. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 76(March), 292–308.
DOI 10.1016/j.rser.2017.01.163

Nwosu, E. E., & Pepple, G. T. (2016). Site Selection and Analysis of Solid Waste Dumpsites in Ile-Ife , Nigeria ( 8363 ). In FIG Working Week 2016 Recovery from Disaster Christchurch, New Zealand. Retrieved from

Panichelli, L., & Gnansounou, E. A. (2008). GIS-based approach for defining bioenergy facilities location : A case study in Northern Spain based on marginal delivery costs and resources competition between facilities, 32, 289–300.
DOI 10.1016/j.biombioe.2007.10.008

Pantaleo, A. M., & Shah, N. (2013). The Logistics of Bioenergy Routes for Heat and Power. Biofuels - Economy, Environment and Sustainability, 217–244.
DOI 10.5772/50478

Paolucci, N., Bezzo, F., & Tugnoli, A. (2016). A two-tier approach to the optimization of a biomass supply chain for pyrolysis processes. Biomass and Bioenergy, 84, 87–97.
DOI 10.1016/j.biombioe.2015.11.011

Papadopoulos, D. P., & Katsigiannis, P. A. (2002). Biomass energy surveying and techno-economic assessment of suitable CHP system installations, 22, 105–124

Pilusa, T. J., & Muzenda, E. (2014). Municipal Solid Waste Utilisation for Green Energy in Gauteng Province-South Africa :

Pradhan, A., & Mbohwa, C. (2014). Development of biofuels in South Africa: Challenges and opportunities. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 39, 1089–1100.
DOI 10.1016/j.rser.2014.07.131

Prins, C., Ba, B. H., Prins, C., & Prodhon, C. (2015). Bioenergy Supply Chain A New Tactical Optimization Model For Bioenergy Supply Chain, (October)

Quinta-Nova, L., Fernandez, P., & Pedro, N. (2017). GIS-Based Suitability Model for Assessment of Forest Biomass Energy Potential in a Region of Portugal. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 95(4).
DOI 10.1088/1755-1315/95/4/042059

Sapp, M. (2014a, October). Global Biomass Power Generation market seen growing 7% CAGR through 2018 _ Biofuels Digest. BiofuelsDigest. Retrieved from

Sapp, M. (2014b, October). New report shows biofuels CAGR globally at 9% between 2013-2019. BiofuelsDigest. Retrieved from

Sapp, M. (2017, April). Technavio study says global advanced biofuel market will reach $ 44 . 6 billion by 2021. BiofuelsDigest, 2021. Retrieved from

Shi, X., Elmore, A., Li, X., Gorence, N. J., Jin, H., Zhang, X., & Wang, F. (2008). Using spatial information technologies to select sites for biomass power plants : A case study in Guangdong, 32, 35–43.
DOI 10.1016/j.biombioe.2007.06.008

Sobrino, F. H., Monroy, C. R., & Pérez, J. L. H. (2011). Biofuels and fossil fuels: Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) optimisation through productive resources maximisation. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.
DOI 10.1016/j.rser.2011.03.010

Stecher, K., Brosowski, A., & Thrän, D. (2013). Biomass potential in Africa. Irena, 44. Retrieved from

Sufiyan, I., Dasuki, S. I., & Kontagora, I. M. (2015). Design and Development of GIS Database for Informational Awareness on Waste Disposal in Keffi Nigeria, 9(12), 46–53.
DOI 10.9790/2402-091224653

Tan, S. T., Hashim, H., Lee, C. T., Lim, J. S., & Kanniah, K. D. (2014). Optimal waste-to-energy strategy assisted by GIS for sustainable solid waste management. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, 18(1).
DOI 10.1088/1755-1315/18/1/012159

Tembo, G., Epplin, F. M., Huhnke, R. L., Tembo, G., Epplin, F. M., & Huhnke, R. L. (2018). Integrative Investment Appraisal of a Lignocellulosic Biomass-to-Ethanol Industry Integrative Investment Appraisal of a Lignocellulosic Biomass-to-Ethanol Industry, 28(3), 611–633

Vlachos, D., Iakovou, E., Karagiannidis, A., & Toka, A. (2008). A Strategic Supply Chain Management Model for Waste Biomass Networks. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Manufacturing Engineering, (October), 797–804. Retrieved from

Voivontas, D., Assimacopoulos, D., & Koukios, E. G. (2001). Assessment of biomass potential for power production : a GIS based method, 20, 101–112

Von Maltitz, G. P., & Setzkorn, K. A. (2013). A typology of Southern African biofuel feedstock production projects. Biomass and Bioenergy, 59, 33–49.
DOI 10.1016/j.biombioe.2012.11.024

Woo, H., Acuna, M., Moroni, M., Taskhiri, M. S., & Turner, P. (2018). Optimizing the location of biomass energy facilities by integrating Multi-Criteria Analysis (MCA) and Geographical Information Systems (GIS). Forests, 9(10), 1–15.
DOI 10.3390/f9100585

World Energy Council. (2016). World Energy Resources: Waste to Energy. Retrieved from

Yawson, D. O., Armah, F. A., & Pappoe, A. N. M. (2009). Enabling sustainability: Hierarchical need-based framework for promoting sustainable data infrastructure in developing countries. Sustainability, 1(4), 946–959.
DOI 10.3390/su1040946

You, F., Graziano, D. J., & Snyder, S. W. (2012). Optimal Design of Sustainable Cellulosic Biofuel Supply Chains : Multiobjective Optimization Coupled with Life Cycle Assessment and Input – Output Analysis. AIChE Journal.
DOI 10.1002/aic

Zhan, F. B., Chen, X., Noon, C. E., & Wu, G. (2005). A GIS-enabled comparison of fixed and discriminatory pricing strategies for potential switchgrass-to-ethanol conversion facilities in Alabama, 28, 295–306.
DOI 10.1016/j.biombioe.2004.06.006

Zhang, F., Johnson, D., Johnson, M., Watkins, D., Froese, R., & Wang, J. (2016). Decision support system integrating GIS with simulation and optimisation for a biofuel supply chain. Renewable Energy, 85, 740–748.
DOI 10.1016/j.renene.2015.07.041